Classification of Filing

Subject: Business Studies

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Overview

The objective of filing is to preserve the records safely and systematically. So, proper classification is made to fulfill the objective. It is classified according to different headings under which the records are classified as per common characteristics. The process of keeping records on the basic of roman, Devanagari or alphabets is called alphabetical filing.

Classification of Filing

Classification of Filing

The objective of filing is to preserve the records safely and systematically. So, proper classification is made to fulfill this objective. The filing is classified according to different headings under which the records are classified as per common characteristics. The methods of filing are discussed as follows:

Alphabetical Filing

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Fig: Alphabetical filing (Source: office-turn.com)

The process of keeping records on the basis of roman, Devanagari or any other alphabets is called alphabetical filing. In the most used system documents are kept and arranged according to the Roman alphabet such as A to Z but in Nepal, Devanagari script is also used. In this method, files and folders are classified and arranged in drawers on the basis of alphabets of the name of persons, firms, and institutions.

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Advantage:

  1. It is simple and easy to understand and follow.
  2. This method needs no separate index.
  3. It is a flexible method of filing.
  4. It is equally suitable for both small and large organization.
  5. This method is useful and applicable to all sorts of letters and documents.
  6. It facilitates grouping and classifying the documents and letters.

Disadvantage:

  1. It is a time-consuming method of filing.
  2. The letters and documents having similar name may create confusion to identify.
  3. Since there is a chance of confusion so there may be difficult to find a particular document.
  4. It lacks confidentiality as the classification system remains open.

Numerical Filing

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Fig: Numerical filing (Source: www.dreamstime.com)

The files that are kept and arranged according to the numerical order is called numerical filing. There are two types of numerical filing:

  1. Consecutive Numerical method:
    In this method, the folders are strictly arranged in a simple numerical order such as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and so on.
  2. Dewey Numerical method:
    In this method, the folders are classified with decimal digits to facilitate even sub-classification.

Advantage:

  1. It is suitable for large offices having a large number of files and folders.
  2. It is an accurate method of filing.
  3. There is greater flexibility in this method.
  4. The separate index can be developed by using numbers.
  5. An easy reference is possible because files are numbered.

Disadvantage:

  1. It is expensive because there is separate indexing.
  2. This method is not suitable for smaller offices having a smaller number of files and folders.
  3. This method is a time-consuming method.
  4. This method is not easy to operate.

Geographical Filing

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Fig: Geographical filing method (Source: www.smead.com)

The geographical filing is the method of arranging the documents and letters according to town, district, zones, region, and countries. The alphabetic arrangement is also adopted in a geographical method of filing.

Advantage:

  1. It is simple to understand and easy to use.
  2. The documents and files can be located quickly.
  3. It is suitable for those offices which are engaged in correspondence with the individuals, firms, and institutions.
  4. It saves time for filing the documents.

Disadvantage:

  1. It is an expensive method and not suitable for smaller offices.
  2. This method is difficult to handle for those who are not acquainted with the geographical locations.
  3. It cannot maintain secrecy because the name of place and person is written on the file.
  4. It is a time consuming to locate the file because it uses different cards and indexes.

Chronological Filing

Chronological filing method refers to the arrangement of files based on the time of the documents, letter, documents received and dispatched. The documents are arranged in order of their date, day and time.

Advantage:

  1. It is simple to understand and easy to operate.
  2. The documents can quickly be located if their dates are known for sure.
  3. It is useful for accounting.
  4. It is less expensive as it does not require specific drawers or cabinets.

Disadvantage:

  1. This method of filing is not suitable for large offices.
  2. It is not useful for filing the letters and documents which have no clear dates mentioned.
  3. It requires a large number of files because every day a number of documents have to be filed.
  4. It is difficult to separately keep records of incoming and outgoing letters and documents.

Subject Filing

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Fig: Filing according to the subject (Source: homebusiness.about.com)

Subject method of filing refers to the arrangement of the files and folders in the drawer according to the name of subjects and the subjects are arranged alphabetically. The subject may be sub-divided as per volume of transaction and correspondence according to the alphabetical order.

Advantage:

  1. It is simple to understand and easy to operate.
  2. It is flexible because there is the possibility of inserting and deleting a large number of files.
  3. It is economical because all the documents under one subject head are filed in the same folder.
  4. It is suitable for those organizations where subjects are important rather than names or numbers.

Disadvantage:

  1. It is not applicable for filing miscellaneous subjects.
  2. It is time-consuming to find all the documents because they are kept according to subjects.
  3. It needs more time and effort to select the names of the subject and sub-subjects.
  4. It is a costly method as indexing required to locate the files.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


References:

Khanal, Soma Raj, Surendra Thapa Aslami and Sitaram Dhakal.Business Studies.Kathmandu: Taleju Prakashan, 2067.

Pant, Prem R., et al.Business Studies.Kathmandu: Buddha Academic Publishers and Distributors Pvt. Ltd., 2010.

 

 

 

Things to remember
  1. The process of keeping records on the basic of roman, Devanagari or alphabets is called alphabetical filing. 
  2. The files that are kept and arranged according to the numerical order is called numerical filing.
  3. A geographical filing is a method of arranging the documents and letters according to town, district, zones, region, and countries.
  4. Chronological filing method refers to the arrangement of files based on the time of the documents, letter, documents received and dispatched. 
  5. Subject method of filing refers to the arrangement of the files and folders in the drawer according to the name of subjects and the subjects are arranged alphabetically. 
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
Questions and Answers

The process of keeping records on the basis of roman, devanagari or alphabets is called alphabetical filing. In this method, files and folders are classified and arranged in drawers on the basis of alphabets of the name of persons, firms, and institutions.  The documents are kept and arranged according to the roman alphabet such as A to Z and in devnagari alphabets such as..

                  Advantages

  • It is easy and simple to understand.
  • This method needs no separate index.
  • It is a flexible method of filing.
  • It is equally suitable for both small and large organization.
  • This method is useful and applicable to all sorts of letters and documents.
  • It facilitates grouping and classifying the documents and letters.

     

    Disadvantage:

  • It is a time-consuming method of filing.
  • The letters and documents having similar name may create confusion to identify.
  • Since there is a chance of confusion so there may be difficult to find a particular document.
  • It lacks confidentiality as the classification system remains open.

The method in which letters and  documents are arranged in separate files in a numerical order is known as numerical filing system. 

  1. Consecutive Numerical method: In this method, the folders are strictly arranged in a simple numerical order such as 1,2,3,4,5 and so on.
  2. Deway Numerical method: In this method, the folders are classified with decimal digits to facilitate even sub-classification.

Advantage:

  1. It is suitable for large offices having a large number of files and folders.
  2. It is an accurate method of filing.
  3. There is greater flexibility in this method.
  4. The separate index can be developed by using numbers.
  5. An easy reference is possible because files are numbered.

Disadvantage:

  1. It is expensive because there is separate indexing.
  2. This method is not suitable for smaller offices having a smaller number of files and folders.
  3. This method is a time-consuming method.
  4. This method is not easy to operate.

The process of keeping records on the basis of roman, devanagari or alphabets is called alphabetical filing. In this method, files and folders are classified and arranged in drawers on the basis of alphabets of the name of persons, firms, and institutions.

              Advantages

  • It is easy and simple to understand.
  • This method needs no separate index.
  • It is a flexible method of filing.
  • It is equally suitable for both small and large organization.
  • This method is useful and applicable to all sorts of letters and documents.
  • It facilitates grouping and classifying the documents and letters

    Disad,vantage:
  • It is a time-consuming method of filing.
  • The letters and documents having similar name may create confusion to identify.
  • Since there is a chance of confusion so there may be difficult to find a particular document.
  • It lacks confidentiality as the classification system remains open


The method in which letters and  documents are arranged in separate files in a numerical order is known as numerical filing system. 

  1. Consecutive Numerical method: In this method, the folders are strictly arranged in a simple numerical order such as 1,2,3,4,5 and so on.
  2. Deway Numerical method: In this method, the folders are classified with decimal digits to facilitate even sub-classification.

Advantage:

  1. It is suitable for large offices having a large number of files and folders.
  2. It is an accurate method of filing.
  3. There is greater flexibility in this method.
  4. The separate index can be developed by using numbers.
  5. An easy reference is possible because files are numbered.

Disadvantage:

  1. It is expensive because there is separate indexing.
  2. This method is not suitable for smaller offices having a smaller number of files and folders.
  3. This method is a time-consuming method.
  4. This method is not easy to operate.

The arrangement of documents according to towns, districts, zones, regions, countries etc. is called geographical classification of filing. The alphabetic arrangement is also adopted in a geographical method of filing.

Three steps are to be taken to use this method:

  1. The operating area must be clearly defined in one geographical limit or unit.
  2. The geographical limits or units must be arranged in alphabetical order.
  3. Within each geographical sub-division, the name of parties and customers can be classified alphabetically.

Advantage:

  1. It is simple to understand and easy to use.
  2. The documents and files can be located quickly.
  3. It is suitable for those offices which are engaged in correspondence with the individual. Firms and institution.
  4. It saves time for filing the documents.

Disadvantage:

  1. It is an expensive method and not suitable for smaller offices.
  2. This method is difficult to handle for those who are not acquainted with the geographical locations.
  3. It cannot maintain secrecy because the name of place and person is written on the file.
  4. It is a time consuming to locate the file because it uses different cards and indexes.

Chronological filing method refers to the arrangement of files based on time of the documents, letter, documents received and dispatched. Various letters and documents are identified and arranged time-wise and date-wise. This method is particularly useful for legal evidence and to record the historical facts.

Advantage:

  1. It is simple to understand and easy to operate.
  2. The documents can quickly be located if their dates are known for sure.
  3. It is useful for accounting.
  4. It is less expensive as it does not require specific drawers or cabinets.

Disadvantage:

  1. This method of filing is not suitable for large offices.
  2. It is not useful for filing the letters and documents which have no clear dates mentioned.
  3. It requires a large number of files because everyday a number of documents have to be filed.
  4. It is difficult to separately keep records of incoming and outgoing letters and documents.

Subject wise method of filing is based upon the subject matter of correspondence.Subject method of filing refers to the arrangement of the files and folders in the 1drawer according to the name of subjects and the subjects are arranged alphabetically. In other words, letters and documents are classified and arranged in files and folders subject or sub-subject wise.

 Advantage:

  1. It is simple to understand and easy to operate.
  2. It is flexible because there is the possibility of inserting and deleting a large number of files.
  3. It is economical because all the documents under one subject head are filed in the same folder.
  4. It is suitable for those organizations where subjects are important rather than names or numbers.

Disadvantage:

  1. It is not applicable for filing miscellaneous subjects.
  2. It is a time consuming to find all the documents because they are kept according to subjects.
  3. It needs more time and effort to select the names of subject and sub-subjects.
  4. It is a costly method as indexing required to locate the files.

Chronological filing method refers to the arrangement of files based on time of the documents, letter, documents received and dispatched. Various letters and documents are identified and arranged time-wise and date-wise. This method is particularly useful for legal evidence and to record the historical facts.

Advantage:

  1. It is simple to understand and easy to operate.
  2. The documents can quickly be located if their dates are known for sure.
  3. It is useful for accounting.
  4. It is less expensive as it does not require specific drawers or cabinets.

Disadvantage:

  1. This method of filing is not suitable for large offices.
  2. It is not useful for filing the letters and documents which have no clear dates mentioned.
  3. It requires a large number of files because everyday a number of documents have to be filed.
  4. It is difficult to separately keep records of incoming and outgoing letters and documents.

Subject wise method of filing is based upon the subject matter of correspondence.Subject method of filing refers to the arrangement of the files and folders in the 1drawer according to the name of subjects and the subjects are arranged alphabetically. In other words, letters and documents are classified and arranged in files and folders subject or sub-subject wise.

 Advantage:

  1. It is simple to understand and easy to operate.
  2. It is flexible because there is the possibility of inserting and deleting a large number of files.
  3. It is economical because all the documents under one subject head are filed in the same folder.
  4. It is suitable for those organizations where subjects are important rather than names or numbers.

Disadvantage:

  1. It is not applicable for filing miscellaneous subjects.
  2. It is a time consuming to find all the documents because they are kept according to subjects.
  3. It needs more time and effort to select the names of subject and sub-subjects.
  4. It is a costly method as indexing required to locate the files.
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