Working on Windows Operating System

Subject: Computer Science

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Working of Windows Operating System deals with the basic knowledge of computer customization with Windows Environment, Application program, Files and Folders and some general shortcut keyboard keys too.
Working on Windows Operating System

1. Working with a Windows Environment


The desktop is the background displayed on your computer screen. It is the total visible area on the screen which users get immediately after turning on the computer. Files, folders, and program icons can be displayed on the desktop for easy access to users.
Figure: Desktop

On the desktop, files, folders and programs are displayed on window frame. The desktop may contain many items such as Computer, Network, Recycle Bin, User, etc. The desktop can be customized with themes and backgrounds to personalize the look of the computer.

Start Menu:

The start menu provides access to the most useful items on your computer including all programs, most recent documents, help and support and other items on your computer. Present Windows includes more Start menu customization options. This menu appears by clicking on the start button.
Fig. Startup menu


Icons are the small graphical image used in GUI OS environment. It represents the symbolic meaning of the command, file, program, web page, etc. Icons help to execute commands, open programs or documents quickly. To execute a command by using an icon, click or double-click on the icon. An icon is a group of images of various formats (size and colors).


Fig. Icons



Windows are frames on the desktop that contains the contents of opened files, folders, and programs. In other words, it is usually a rectangular portion of the display on a computer monitor that presents its contents (e.g. the contents of a directory, a text file or an image) on the screen. Windows are one of the elements that comprise a graphical user interface (GUI).

Task Bar:

The taskbar displays opened files, folders, and programs. When multiple windows are open, you can click on the file, folder or program buttons in the taskbar to switch between windows.


Fig. Task Bar

List of components of tasks bar:

  1. Start button
  2. Quick launch bar
  3. System trays with some programs
  4. Time bar

For example, all documents using the same extension have the same icon. Some folders can have a customized icon applied to them. The name of file, folder or program is displayed under the icon.


Computer folder displays all hard disk drives and removable storage devices connected to your computer. Double-clicking on a drive or removable storage device displays its contents.


Fig. Computer


To open the computer Folder:

  1. Click on start Icon>Computer or double-click on the Computer icon.


Documents folder provides a place to store all of your files. When you save a document, the default save location is the Documents folder:


Fig. Documents

To open the Documents Folder:

  1. Click Start>Documents or Double-Click.
  2. Networks
  3. The Networks folder displays all the shared resources connected to your computer by a network.


The Networks folder display all the shared resources connected to your computer by a network.


Fig. Networks

To open the Network Folders:

  1. Click start>Networks or Double-click on the Networks.

Recycle Bin:

When you delete a program, file or folder, it is moved to the Recycle Bin. The Recycle Bin gives you the opportunity of retrieving your deleted items later if you change your minds. Items in the Recycle Bin still take up hard disk space.


Fig. Recycle bin

When the Recycle Bin is full, Windows automatically cleans out enough space to accommodate the newest deleted items. By default, the Recycle Bin is located on your desktop.

To restore items from the Recycle Bin:

  1. Double-click on the Recycle Bin on the desktop. This opens the Recycle Bin windows.
  2. Select the items you want to restore.
  3. Click the Restore this item link in the Recycle Bin Tasks area.


By default, the Music folder is situated in the Libraries folder. When you use Windows Media Player to copy music from a CD or download music from the Internet, the default save location is the music folder.


Fig. Music

To open the Music folder:

  1. Click start>Music.


By default, my pictures folder is situated in the libraries folder. When you save pictures from your digital camera or scanner to your computer or save a file in a graphics program, such as Microsoft Paint, the default save location is the pictures folder.


Fig. Pictures

To open the Pictures folder:

  1. Click start>My pictures.

2. Working with files and folders


Folders on a computer provide a storage system similar to folders in a filing cabinet. Folders can contain files and other subfolders. Windows provides a number of personal folders to start your computer filing system. A folder is typically represented by a folder icon. The folder name is the icon. The folder in Windows is also known as a directory in DOS.


Fig. Folders

Creating the personal folder on the desktop:

  1. Right click on the desktop.
  2. Select New>folder.
  3. Give the name of the folder then press enter.

Alternative way to create the personal folder:

  1. Click on the file>folder.
  2. Give the name of the folder then press enter.

Operating a file or folder:

  1. Double-click on the file or folder you want to open.
  2. The file or folder is displayed in a window.

To copy or cut files and folders:

  1. Right click on the file or folder you want to copy or cut.
  2. From the pop-up menu, Select Copy or cut.
  3. Open the location you want the copied or cut item to be placed.
  4. Right-click in the location.
  5. From the pop-up menu, select paste.

To rename files and folders:

  1. Right-click on the file or folder you want to rename.
  2. From the pop-up menu, select rename.
  3. Type a new name.
  4. Press the Enter key on your keyboard.

To delete a file or folder location in a folder:

  1. Select the file or folder you want to delete.
  2. Right, click on the file or folder you want to delete.
  3. From the pop-up menu, select Delete.


  1. Select the file or folder you want to delete.
  2. Press the Delete key on your keyboard.

Changing File and Folder Views:


Fig. Changing file and folder views


To change how the files and folders within a folder are viewed:

  1. Click the Change your Views option.
  2. Select the file and folder view you want.

Display File and Folder Properties:

Files and folders have property sheets that include information such as the type, size and location of file or folder; the data of a file or folder was created, modified or accessed; file and folder attributes; the name of the program that opens a file and the number of files or subfolders contained in a folder.

To display properties for files and folders within a folder window:

  1. Select the file or folder (in the folder window) for which you want to display properties.
  2. Right –click on the file or folder for which you want to display properties.
  3. From the pop-up menu, select properties.

Modifying Folder Options:

  1. Open the folder for which you want to modify.
  2. Select Organize> Folder and Search Options.
  3. This opens the folder Options dialog box.
  4. Make the folder modifications you want
  5. Click OK.

Using Task Panels:

Task panels provide an easy way to access the most commonly used folder tasks. The task panel displays a list of hyperlinked tasks to the left of the folder contents.


Fig.Using task panel


Several folders offer additional specialized hyperlinked tasks. For example, the pictures and Music folders offer links that help you manage your picture and music files. The recycle bin offers links to empty the Recycle Bin or restore items from Recycle Bin.

Computer folders offer links to view system information, add or remove programs, and change system settings.

Searching Files/ folders using search companion:


Fig. Searching files and folders

Enhanced for Windows 7, the Search Companion is designed to help you quickly find what you`re looking for.

  1. Click start Icon
  2. Type whatever you want to search.

3. Working with a Windows Application Program

Customizing the Desktop:

By default, the Windows theme is applied the first time you start Windows. A desktop theme affects the whole look of your desktop.


Fig. Customizing the desktop

To apply a desktop theme:

  1. Right click a desktop.
  2. From the pop-up menu, select personalize. This opens the Personalization dialog box.
  3. Select a theme from the Theme option.

To apply a desktop background:

  1. Right click on the Desktop.
  2. From the pop-up menu, select Personalize. This opens the Personalization dialog box.
  3. Click the Desktop Background option.
  4. Select a background from Background list.
  5. Click on Save Changes.

Control Panel:

As you`ve read earlier Control panel is one of the most important system folders, which consist of various controlling program`s icon to control an overall operation of the Windows. The following is the Sample of Control panel.


Fig. Control panel


Date and Time:

With the help of this option, we can change / set our system date and time as we need.


This option is to customize the Desktop environment.


We can set keyboard settings like its character repetition and cursor blinking rate, a width of the cursor.

Program and Features:

This option allows the user to do following things;

Allows users to uninstall and change existing software packages, as well as indicating how much space individual programs take and how frequently they are used.

  1. Allows users to manually install software and install add-ons from Windows Update.
  2. Allows users to change which Windows components are installed.

Administrative Tools:

This option contains tools for system administration, including security, performance, and service configuration. These are the links to various configurations of the Microsoft Management Console such as the local services list and the Even Viewer.

Windows Update:

This option is used to specify how the automatic updates client should download updates from Microsoft update website, by default this is set to download and install daily.

Windows Keyboard Shortcuts:

Use shortcut keys as an alternative to the mouse when working Windows. You can open, close and navigate the Start menu, desktop, menus dialogue boxes and Web pages using keyboard shortcuts. It makes users use Windows easy.

(Shrestha, Manandhar and Roshan)


Shrestha, Prachandra Ram, et al. Computer Essentials. Kathmandu: Asmita's Publication, 2014.

Pudasaini, Dipak, Computer Science Principles and Practices XI, Budda Prakashan, Ktm

Things to remember
  • Working on windows operating system
  1. Windows environment
  2. Windows files and folder
  3. Windows application program
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.

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