Electrical Signal Conditioning,Processing and Transmission

Notes

Basic Op-amp Characteristics

An operational amplifier(often op-amp) is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a single-ended output.The amplifier's differential inputs consist of a non-inverting input (+) with voltage V+ and an inverting input (–) with voltage V−. It has high input impedance and low output impedance and has the capability to amplify the dc or ac signal.

Instrumentation Amplifier

An instrumentation amplifier is a differential op-amp circuit providing high input impedances with ease of gain adjustment through the variation of a single resistor.Instrumentation amplifiers are used where great accuracy and stability of the circuit both short and long-term are required.

Signal Amplification, Attenuation, Integration, Differentiation, Wave Shaping

Normally , the output of the transducer in electrical form is very weak and low level.So,The process of amplifying the weak signal so that it is fed to other components of instrumentation system is called Signal amplification. Major amplifiers used in signal amplification constructed using op-amps are Inverting amplifier, Non-inverting amplifier, differential amplifier, summing amplifier, integrator amplifier etc. Attenuation refers to a reduction in signal strength commonly occurring while transmitting ana

Effect of Noise, Analog Filtering and Digital Filtering

In electronics,Noise is a random fluctuation in an electrical signal.In communication systems, noise is an error or undesired random disturbance of a useful information signal in a communication channel. actually. The noise is a summation of unwanted or disturbing energy from natural and sometimes man-made sources. There are different types of noise such as thermal noise, shot noise , burst noise , partition noise , Carrier generation and Recombination noise etc.Filters are networks that process signals.

Optical Communication, Fiber Optics, Electro-Optic Conversion Devices

Optical communication, also known as optical telecommunication,is communication at a distance using light to carry information. It can be performed visually or by using electronic devices.Optical fiber is the most common type of channel for optical communications nowadays because of its long distance signal transmission capability, larger bandwidth, light weight, security etc.