Topography is the shape of the earth's surface and its physical features, such as mountains, valleys, canyons, and other landforms. The topography, or surface of the earth, is constantly changing due to many powerful forces.
The change in weather pattern and atmospheric temperature is known as climate change. It is also known as Global Warming. Scientists believe that the earth is currently facing a period of rapid warming brought on by rising the levels of heat-trapping gases, also known as greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This note provides the information about controlling measures and effect of climate change.
Disaster is a sudden, accidental event that causes many deaths and injuries. Common natural disasters include earthquakes, landslide, sea-storms, floods and forest fires. A disaster causes great damage to human life and property. So, the management of disaster is essential to prevent the damage.
Our country, Nepal is located between India in the south and China to the north. Nepal is topographically divided into three regions; the Himalayas to the north, the hills consisting of the Mahabharat range and the Chure hills in the middle and the Terai to the south.
The map is the representation of earth's surface in a flat sheet of paper. It is a combination of different colours, indices, and symbols.
Latitudes and longitudes are the angles that uniquely define points on a sphere. The angles comprise a coordinate scheme that can locate or identify the geographic positions on the surfaces of planets such as the earth. Latitudes give the location of a place north or south of the equator. Latitudes are circular of different lengths and parallel to each other. Longitude gives the location of a place east or west of north-south. They are semi-circular but unparalleled.
Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. It lies in the northern hemisphere of the earth. It covers about 10,180,000 sq. km of the earth's surface, which is nearly 2% of the total earth's surface. It is extended from 25oW to 65oE longitudes and 35oN to 73oS latitudes. This unit also gives the information about the natural setting, physical features and climate of Europe.
Australia has a total area of 7,617,950 square kilometres. The Gulf of Carpenteria in the north and the Great Australian Bight in the south are the places where the seas enter to the midland.