Mechanical Properties of Metals

Notes

Concept of stress and strain

Materials scientists learn about these mechanical properties by testing materials. Some of the important mechanical properties of a metals are Brittleness, Creep, Ductility, Elasticity, Fatigue, Hardness, Malleability, Plasticity, Resilience, Stiffness, Toughness, Yield strength.

Elastic and plastic deformation

Elastic deformation, however, is an approximation and its quality depends on the time frame considered and loading speed. If, as indicated in the graph opposite, the deformation includes elastic deformation, it is also often referred to as "elasto-plastic deformation" or "elastic-plastic deformation.Plastic deformation is observed in most materials, particularly metals, soils, rocks, concrete, foams, bone and skin.[3][4][5][6][7][8] However, the physical mechanisms that cause plastic deformation can vary widely. At a crystalline scale, plasticity in metals is usually a consequence of dislocations.

Elasticity, ductility, tensile strength

Ductility is when a solid material stretches under tensile stress. If ductile, a material may be stretched into a wire. Malleability, a similar property, is a material's ability to deform under pressure (compressive stress). If malleable, a material may be flattened by hammering or rolling.Definition of Poisson's ratio. Poisson's ratio is the ratio of transverse contraction strain to longitudinal extension strain in the direction of stretching force. Tensile deformation is considered positive and compressive deformation is considered negative.

Graph of brittle and ductile material

A brittle material is one like cast iron which will stretch and then break.The Metals Handbook defines hardness as "Resistance of metal to plastic deformation, usually by indentation. However, the term may also refer to stiffness or temper, or to resistance to scratching, abrasion, or cutting