Any undesirable change in the chemical and physical properties of soil which causes direct or indirect effects in the living organisms is said to be soil pollution.

The major sources of soil pollution are:

  1. Domestic Wastes
    The waste products that are generated through the day to day household activities such as dust, plastic, contaminated food, paper, etc. are thrown on land. It produces many harmful germs which are the causes of many harmful diseases. As a result, land pollution occurs that decreases the fertility of the soil.

  2. Excessive Use of Pesticides
    Different types of chemicals such as insecticides and pesticides used by farmers to enhance the crops are degrading the natural quality of the soil. The most dangerous substances that cause harm to the soil are DDT, Aldrin, parathion, etc.

  3. Industrial Wastes
    The wastage omitted from the factories and industries which are thrown in the land causes harm in the natural state of the soil. It causes degrade in the quantity and quality of crops grown from the land. It also has many other harmful effects on the living organisms.

  4. Use of Chemical Fertilizers
    The fertilizers which are used in the agricultural process also harm the quality of the soil. If used in a proper and adequate amount, it can be useful for the humans, but if they are used in a haphazard way it affects the soil negatively. It may also cause an imbalance in the nutrients of the soil.

  5. Municipal Waste
    The wastage collected from the municipal areas are not disposed of in a proper place due to which the soil gets contaminated. Both organic and inorganic waste from the cities are responsible for the depletion of fertility of the soil.

  6. Acid Rain
    The presence of any sorts of acids such as sulphuric acid, nitric acid, etc. in rain is said to be acid rain. The acid rainfall damages the natural quality of soil and makes it infertile. 

We can control the soil pollution by following the listed measures:

  1. The use of compost manure should be emphasized rather than the chemical fertilizers.
  2. There should be a limitation in the use of pesticides and insecticides so that the fertility of soil remains good.
  3. The wastage obtained from the city areas should be disposed of in a proper place. 
  4. The water used in the irrigation system should be pure. 
  5. Afforestation programme should be launched in places with a high chance of natural disasters.
  6. Different types of awareness programmes should be made effective to give knowledge about soil conservation.
  7. The proper drainage system should be made.
  8. Different pieces of training should be given for the proper and effective use of chemical fertilizers.
  9. The harmful substances emitted by factories and industries must be properly managed.
  10. Various soil conservation methods must be implemented to preserve the soil.

Forest plays a vital role in balancing the ecosystem. It is very important to conserve forest resources. Following are some of the measures that can be implemented to conserve and manage the forest resources in Nepal:

  1. Afforestation programme must be emphasized. Scientific and systematic ways should be used to cut down trees.
  2. Forest fire must be prevented.
  3. Strict laws regarding the deforestation should be implemented.
  4. The plantation programme must be done in bare fields and steep slopes. Terrace farming should be given importance.
  5. The unauthentic and unwanted used of trees must be prevented.