Types of Office Resources

There must be different types of office resources to perform work effectively and efficiently. The different types of resources are explained below:

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Manpower

Manpower refers to all the staff who is appointed in different positions for performing administrative, clerical, as well as technical jobs. It is also known as office personnel. Manpower is the only living resources which utilize other resources in order to perform official activities. The organization should estimate a suitable number of staff for a given period. The act of estimating the required number of staff in different positions of the organization is called “Darbandi”. It avoids the situation of over and understaffing and helps in controlling labor cost.

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Materials

Materials refer to all durable and non-materials items required by the office to perform all its activities, accurate and systematic manner. These materials help the manpower to perform official activities efficiently. These provide comfort, reduce tension, monitor, and fatigue. These also help to increase the working efficiency to the staff.

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Sources of Incomes

The revenue which is earned by selling and distributing goods and services on a regular basis is called sources of income. It also includes revenue earned from non-business activities. An income refers to financial benefit or revenue. It is earned against the goods sold or services rendered. Every organization requires regular sources of income. Such incomes are essential to meet regular expenses and to make a surplus. A number of incomes are essential to determine the stability, growth, competitiveness and goodwill of the organization. The main sources of income for the government are income tax, value added tax, interest tax, customs duty, excise duty, donation, etc.

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Means of Transportation

Transportation means the process of physical movement of products and people from one place to another place. The means which are used to transport products and people from one place to another place inside or outside the country is called the means of transportation. It facilitates to distribute goods from the production place to another place inside or outside the country. It helps in widening the market and making a large volume of sales. It saves the valuable time of the office personnel. The car, bus, motorcycle, airplane, ship, etc. are the different examples of means of transportation. The means of transportation used under different modes are as follows:

  1. Road transportation
    The act of carrying products or people from one place to another through land routes is known as road transportation. Road transportation is one of the cheap, convenient and relatively fast mode of transportation. Especially, road tranportation is important in a landlocked mountainous country like Nepal . Cycle, motorcycle, car, bus, tractor or trucks are some of the examples of means of road transportation.

  2. Rail transportation
    The act of carrying products and people from one place another through railways is known as rail transportation. Railways is more reliable as compared to road transportation and it is cheapest than road transportation. Railway transportation facility is extremely limited in Nepal.

  3. Water transportation
    The act of carrying products and people from one place to another place through the lake, canal, river, sea, and ocean is known as water transportation. It is the cheapest, oldest and extremely slow mode of transportation. It is used for transporting bulky products to a distant place. Water transportation facility is quite limited in a country like Nepal. Boat, motor boat, and ship, are the some examples of water transportation.

  4. Air transportation
    The act of carrying products and people from one place to another place through airways is called air transportation. Air transportation is advanced and quickest but most expensive mode of transportation. It is mostly used for traveling to a distant place, carrying mails and transporting valuable and lighter products. For a mountainous country like Nepal where adequate road, rails and water transportation facility is not available, the air transportation is an extremely useful mode for transportation. The balloon, Helicopter, Jet are some of the example of air transportation.

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Communication

The process of exchanging the information, ideas and opinions either by speaking or writing or using the symbols between individuals and departments inside or outside the organization is called communication. Communication is the act of exchanging information, ideas, opinions between two or more peoples or organization.Communication helps to direct the employees to achieve organizational goal. It bring mutual understanding between two or more parties.

Importance of communication

  1. Communication manages to formulate organizational objectives, plans, policies, and programs.
  2. It helps to bring mutual understanding between two parties which helps to solve misunderstanding.
  3. It helps to motivate employees by informing and clarifying them about the work to be done.
  4. It helps to implement various plans and polices of an organization which uplifts the productivity.
  5. It helps the making effective and sound decisions.
  6. It helps in co-ordination, controlling and directing activites of people and department of the organization.

  • Manpower refers to all the staff who is appointed in different positions for performing administrative, clerical, as well as technical jobs. It is also known as office personnel. 
  • Materials refer to all durable and non-materials items required by the office to perform all its activities, accurate and systematic manner. 
  • The revenue which is earned by selling and distributing goods and services on regular basis is called sources of income.
  • Transportation means the process of physical movement of products and people from one place to another place.
  • The means which are used to transport products and people from one place to another place inside or outside the country is called the means of transportation.
  • Communication is a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding the official information. 

1. Road transportation:

The act of carrying products a people from one place to another through land routes is known as road transportation. It is cheap, convenient and relatively fast mode of transportation. It is an important mode of transportation for carrying goods, products and people especially in a landlocked mountainous country like Nepal. Cycle, motorcycle, car, bus, tractor or trucks are some of the examples of means of road transportation.

2. Rail transportation:

The act of carrying products and people from one place another through railway is known as rail transportation. It is cheaper road transportation. It is an old mode of transportation. It is more reliable as compared to road transportation. Railway transportation facility is extremely limited in Nepal.

3. Water transportation:

The act of carrying products and people from one place to another place through the lake, canal, river, sea and ocean is known as water transportation. It is the cheapest and oldest mode of transportation. It is an extremely slow mode of transportation. It is used for transporting bulky products to a distant place. Water transportation facility is quite limited in Nepal. Boat, motor boat and ship, are the some examples of water transportation.

4. Air transportation:

The act of carrying products and people from one place to another place through airways is called air transportation. It is the advanced mode of transportation. It is the most expensive but the quickest mode of transportation. It is mostly used for travelling to a distant place, carrying mails and transporting valuable and lighter products. For a mountainous country like Nepal where adequate road transportation facility is not available, the air transportation is an extremely useful mode for transportation. The balloon, Helicopter, Jet are some of the examples of the examples of air transportation.

The means which are used to transport products and people from one place to another place inside or outside the country is called the means of transportation.

Types of office resources are:

Manpower:

Manpower refers to all the staff who is appointed in different positions for performing administrative, clerical, as well as technical jobs. It is also known as office personnel. Manpower is the only living resources which utilize other resources in order to perform official activities. The organization should estimate a suitable number of staff for a given period. The act of estimating the required number of staff in different positions of the organization is called Darbandi. It avoids the situation of over and understaffing and helps in controlling labor cost.

Materials:

Materials refer to all durable and non-materials items required by the office to perform all its activities, accurate and systematic manner. These materials help the manpower to perform official activities efficiently. These provide comfort, reduce tension, monitor, and fatigue. These also help to increase the working efficiency to the staff.

Sources of income:

The revenue which is earned by selling and distributing goods and services on a regular basis is called sources of income. It also includes revenue earned from non business activities. An income refers to financial benefit or revenue. It is earned against the goods sold or services rendered. Every organization requires regular sources of income. Such incomes are essential to meet regular expenses and to make a surplus. The amount of incomes is essential to determine the stability, growth, competitiveness and goodwill of the organization. The main sources of income for the government are income tax, value added tax, interest tax, customs duty, excise duty, donation, etc.

Means of transportation:

Transportation means the process of physical movement of products and people from one place to another place. The means which are used to transport products and people from one place to another place inside or outside the country is called the means of transportation. It facilitates to distribute goods from the production place to another place inside or outside the country. It helps in widening the market and making a large volume of sales. It saves the t valuable time of the office personnel. The car, bus, motorcycle, airplane, ship, etc. are the different examples of means of transportation.

Communication:

Communication is a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding the official information. The process of exchanging the information, ideas and opinions either by speaking or writing or using the symbols between individuals and departments inside or outside the organization is called communication. Communication is the chain of understanding which binds all the persons and departments and departments of an organization together and directs them to achieve the organizational goal.

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  • The process of exchanging the information, ideas and opinions either by speaking or writing or using the symbols between individuals and departments inside or outside the organization is called ______.

    controlling


    communication


    co-ordination


    risk management


  • The process of physical movement of products and people from one place to another place is called _____.

    transportation


    livestock farming


    communication


    furniture making


  • The act of carrying products a people from one place to another through land routes is known as ______.

    rope transportation


    air transportation


    water transportation


    road transportation


  • Which one of them is the most expensive but the quickest mode of transportation?

    rope transportation
    water transportation
    air transportation
    railway transportation
  • Ship is an example of ______.

    water transportation


    rope transportation


    road transportation


    air transportation


  • Jet is an example of ______.

    water transportation


    rope transportation


    railway transportation


    air transportation


  • All durable and non-durable items required by the office to perform all its activities, accurate and systematic manner are called ______.

    materials


    manpower


    buildings


    technicians


  • Manpower is also known as ______.

    robot


    office material


    gadget


    office personnel


  • An act of updating present manpower for performing future work in the changing environment by increasing knowledge, skills and capacities of the employees is known as

    social development
    national development
    manpower development
    economic development
  • The manpower who involves in preparing plans and policies, implementing them into practice and controlling whole activities of the organization is called

    abstruse manpower
    special manpower
    administrative manpower
    technical manpower
  • Manpower is also known as ______.

    gadget


    office personnel


    office material


    robot


  • An act of updating present manpower for performing future work in the changing environment by increasing knowledge, skills and capacities of the employees is known as _____.

    manpower development


    national development


    social development


    economic development


  • The manpower who involves in preparing plans and policies, implementing them into practice and controlling whole activities of the organization is called ______.

    technical manpower


    abstruse manpower


    special manpower


    administrative manpower


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