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Introduction and Function of Operating System

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An Operating System or OS is a collection of system program controls the operations of computer system. it activates and recognizes the hardware devices and provides the operating environment for other application software. It acts like the intermediary between a user and the computer hardware. Few examples of operating systems are UNIX, MS-DOS, MS-Windows, Linux etc.

OS has major two objectives.

  1. Activate the hardware devises
  2. Provide an interactive interface to the user and interpret commands so that it can communicate with the hardware.


Types of OS

There are many types of operating systems. We can categorize it according to the user involved to operate it like single user and multiuser operating system.

According to the processing we have single processing, multiprocessing operating system, real time system, batch processing system etc.

But in broad approach, we can classify the operating system on the basis user interface like command or character user interface operating system and graphical user interface operating system.

Command or Character based User Interface (CUI)

CUI is a traditional user interface. It provides the interactive terminal where user can enter the command to interpret. It is the only one common place where the program and the user communicate with each other.

Graphical User Interface (GUI)

With advancement of technology, computer system has become quicker and cheaper. Operating environment has also changed. This lead the development of graphical user interface where users can interact with the computer using picture and graphs, rather than character and commands. It displays the icon, buttons, dialog box etc. Popular GUI based operating system is Microsoft Windows.

1. It is based on graphical user interface mode and instructions are given using graphical components like menu bar, toolbar etc. It is based on command user interface mode and instructions are given using characters.
2. It is graphical and user friendly and easy to learn and operate. It is more textual and less user friendly and difficult to operate and learn. User needs to memorise the commands to operate the system.
5. It consists of different components such as text box, icon, desktop, pointing devices etc. It does not consist of such different components.
7. E.g. Windows OS E.g. MS-DOS OS

Functions of OS

  • It manages the job waiting to be processed. It recognizes the jobs, identifies their priorities to process.
  • It manages the storage and retrieval of data.
  • It is used for the virtual memory management. With this software it is possible to increase the capacity of main memory without actually increasing its size but using secondary memory as primary memory.
  • It manages the input and output operation of computer.
  • Its job is to secure data inside the memory of computer. It protects hardware and software from improper use. Some large operating system provides password also for the purpose of security.
  • It communicates with all the hardware and software components of computers.
  • It helps to interpret the command given by the user to computer system.

Very Short Questions

  • A collection of system program that together controls the operations of computer system is ______.

    a dataentry system
    an operating system
    an application system
    a software system
  • What is the fullform of GUI?

    Graphical User Interface
    Graphical User Intelligence
    Graphical Unicode Interface
    Grand User Interface
  • Which interface is based on command user interface mode and instructions are given using characters?

    Graphical User Interface(GUI)
    Windows OS
    both CUI AND GUI
    Command based User Interface(CUI)
  • What is operating system?

    A connection between sender and receiver.
    Program that povides organized services.
    Program that translates data that specifies network program use.
    All the answers are correct.
  • A process of loading system files into working memory (RAM) to become ready to work is ______.

    trouble shooting
  • Booting process during the time of running the computer system is ______.

    soft booting
    cold booting
    warm booting
    fast booting
  • Instructions given to the computer to work are called ______.

  • How many types of operating system are there?

  • What is the full form of CUI?

    Command Utility Interface
    Command User Interface

    Command User Interference

    Client User Interface
  • What is the full form of GUI?

    Group User Interface
    Graphic Unison Interface
    Graphic User Interface

    Graphic User Interference

  • Which one of the following is virtual memory?


    Pen drive



  • Which one of the following is not GUI based operating system ?

    Windows XP

    Windows 8

    Windows 7

  • ______ is a collection of system program controls the operations of computer system.




    Operating system

  • The small blue bar you see at the bottom of your desktop is ______.

    task bar
    start bar
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