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Internet and Email

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The internet is the largest network that connects millions of computer around the world. It is also known as networks of networks. It provides data, information and other services to the client computers.

By using telephone line or normal modem, we can connect internet in personal computer. The Internet Service Provide is a company that provides the Internet facility to the users. A computer can be connected to the Internet using Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN), cable line, leased line and satellite. Nepal Telecom (NTC), World link, etc are some ISPs of Nepal.

History of the Internet

The first idea of an internet was developed by J.C.R Licklider of MIT in 1962. During late 1962 the project was given to defense advanced research projects agency. Later this project was developed into ARPANET in 1969. This was a joint venture between DARPA and Robert. The basic idea of internet was, multiple connected computers transmitting data to each other. In mid 1980s, National Science Foundation funded ARPANET after DARPA left the project. NSF established five "Supercomputing Centers" that were available to anyone who wanted to use them for academic background.

In 1990, the original ARPANET was shut down because the commercial internet backbone has replaced it. This internet was the initial phase of themodern internet. Since then the internet has grown to become one of the world's largest network.

Internet Connectivity:

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Internet is provided to us by the ISPs which stands for Internet Service Providers. When we buy internet from them they allocate a certain bandwidth for us and provide us with the username and password to connect to the internet. The line from the ISP is connected to the modem and we can dial throgh the modem to connetc to the internet using the passowrd provided. In Nepal there are many ISPs like Nepal Telecom, Subisu, Worldlink, Vianet etc.

Bandwidth is the rate of data transfer. When we buy internet from the ISP we pay for the bandwidth. Higher the the bandwidth higher will be the speed and price. Bandwidth is measured in bits per second and different technologies have different bandwidths. Old Modems had the capacity of 56 kilobits per second but t now we have brodband connection which range form 128 kilobits per second to 100 gigabits per second.

Services on the Internet

Some of the services provided by the Internet are as follows:

  • World Wide Web
  • Electronic Mail
  • Electronic Fax
  • Telent Service
  • File Transferring
  • Video Conference
  • Chatting

Some of the services provided by the internet are described below:

    1. World Wide Web (WWW)

      The world wide web which is also known as web is one of the popular services of the Internet. The WWW provides the millions of information on various topics. There are millions of web sites on the web which provide information. Each web sites is identified by the Internet Address or Uniform Resource Locator (URL).There are some web sites which search the information on the web on the basis of keyword. Such sites are known as Search Engines. Google.com, Bing.com etc are some of the examples search engines. To use email we need internet and browser. Browser is an application that enables us to use internet. E.g. Firefox, chrome, internet explorer etc.

    2. Electronic Mail (E-mail)

      Electronic mail which is also known as e-mail is also one of the popular services on the internet which helps to exchange data like text, image etc. It is the electronic message that is transferred from one computer to another computer through the Internet. To use email we need internet and browser. Browser is an application that enables us to use internet. E.g. Firefox, chrome, internet explorer etc.

      Advantages of E-mail:

      • It is the cheapest and fastest mail service.
      • We can send any form of data like text, image, video etc. through e-mail.
      • Physical presence of recipient is not required.
      • Same e-mail can be send to more than one person.
      • E-mail can be read from anywhere in the world.
    3. Video Conference
      The advanced service of the Internet through which the people at different locations communicate by watching each other is known as video conference.

Setting up an Email:

We will learn how to setup our email in three mostly used email clients yahoo, gmail and hotmail.

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Yahoo:

  1. On your browser type www.yahoomail.com
  2. Click on Sign up for a new account
  3. Fill out the registration form.
  4. Click send SMS
  5. Put the code from your phone in the box
  6. Click continue
  7. You are ready to use your account.

gmail

Gmail:

  • On your browser type www.gmail.com
  • Click on create account
  • Fill out the registration form. If needed then go for phone verification
  • Click on the I agree terms and condition checkbox.
  • Click submit
  • You are ready to use your account.

Hotmail:

  • On your browser type www.outlook.com
  • Click on Sign up now
  • Fill out the registration form. If needed then go for phone verification
  • Click on the I agree terms and condition checkbox.
  • Click create account
  • You are ready to use your account.

Some info on email Client:

After creating our account we have to log in to use your mail client.

On the left side of the email client (after logging in) we see different menu headings like inbox, draft, sent, spam, trash etc. (in case of gmail we need to click on more to see all the menu headings).

  • Inbox: It is the place where all of our incomming mails are stored.
  • Draft: It is the place where composed but not sent mails are stored.
  • Sent: After we send a mail a copy of it is saved in here.
  • Trash (in yahoo and gmail), Deleted (in hotmail): The mails that are deleted from inbox are stored here. If we delete mails from here we won't be able to recover them. Also mails are automatically deleted from trash after certain period of time.
  • Spam (in yahoo and gmail), Junk (in hotmail): This place holds the mails that are not so important for us. This might contain the marketing offeres that are bogus and intended to harm us when clicked. So we have to be careful before opening mails that are listed as spams.

Composing a message

  1. For google click at the red compose button at the left of our screen. For yahoo click on the compse button which is above inbox. For hotmail click on new which is at the top of the screen on the right side of outlook.com.
  2. For gmail: Provide the address we want to send the mail to, then provide the subject and below that write the body of the mail. Now if we need to attach the file then click on the attachment symbol (the paperclip symbol) at the bottom of the screen near to send. Select the file needed and click upload. after the upload we can click send to send the mail.
  3. For yahoo: Provide the address we want to send the mail to, then provide the subject and below that write the body of the mail. Now if we need to attach the file then click on the attachment symbol (the paperclip symbol) at the bottom of the screen near to send. Select the file needed and click upload. after the upload we can click send to send the mail.
  4. For outlook: Provide the address we want to send the mail to, then provide the subject and below that write the body of the mail. Now if we need to attach the file then click on the attachment symbol (the paperclip symbol) at the top of the screen near to send. Select the file needed and click upload. after the upload we can click send to send the mail.

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Search engine:

Internet is the huge ocean of data and we need to navigate through those data. It is not easy to locate what we want in that huge ocean, so we have search engines that provide us with the results that we intend after receiving a keyword from us. Keyword is the text that we provide to search engine for what we intend to search. Search engine work in three differnt steps.

  1. Web crawling: Search engine has bots, that crawl to every link on the site, famously known as spiders. The results of the bots are stored by the search engines. Before storing they are indexed.
  2. Indexing: The results provides by the bots are analysed and are indexed. Indexing can be done according to title, page content headings or special fields called meta tags (mostly used by google). These datas after indesing are stored in the search engine database.
  3. Searching: Now when user provides the keyword the search engine searches in its own indexed database and shows the result. In this way user can get faster result and more or less accurate result.

When we search we can use boolean operators, AND or OR or NOT, to get more specific results. The keyword we provide to the search engine is also called query. And the page we get after the search is called search page. The result we get in the search engine is typically sorted according to the number of visits to the site. If the site has high views then it will come first in the result page. People use tool called SEO (Search Engine Optimization) which enables sites to be at the top spot of the result page.

There are different search engines that are avialable in the internet. The most used one is Google then we have yahoo, bing, baidu (chinese search engine) etc.



Very Short Questions

0%
  • What is the full form of WWW?

    World Web Work
    World Wide Wrok
    World Wide Web
    Wide World Web 
  • ______ is the transmission of messages over communications networks.

    None of the answers are correct
    Email
    Electronic Fax
    Telnet Service 
  • What is the full form of ISDN?

    Integrated Service Digital Network

    None of the answers are correct
    Internet Service Digital Network
    Integrated Service Demodulated Network

  • The full form of NTC is: 

    Network Telecom
    Nepal Telecom
    National Telecom
    Network Transmission
  • What is the fullform of URL?

    User Resource Locator
    Uniform Resource Locator
    Uniform Reliance Locator
    Uniform Resource Location
  • What is the fullform of FTP?

    File Transfer Promoter
    Force Transfer Protocol
    File Transfer Protocol
    File Transcript Protocol
  • What is the fullform of IRC?

    Internet Relay Chat
    Internet Relay Champion
    International Relay Chat
    Internet Remark Chat
  • One of the facility provided by the Internet through which post notes or messages on various subjects is:

    news group
    telnet
    internet relay chat
    conference
  • Network of networks is known as:

    extranet
    internet
    ethernet
    intranet
  • What is the fullform of ISP?

    Inspection Society of Police
    Internet Service Protocol
    Internet Service Provider
    Integrated Service Provider
  • The internet uses the ______ as the protocol engine.

    SLIP


    TTP


    PPP


    HTTP


  • Which of the following protocol is used for e-mail services?

    SMIP


    SMAP


    SMTP


    SMOP


  • ______ is the incoming e-mail server.

    POP


    SMIP


    SMTP


    PPP


  • To join the internet, the computer has to be connected to a ______.

    internet architecture board


    internet service provider


    internet society


    none of these


  • Which is not the search engine?

    Altavista.com


    Facebook.com


    Google.com


  • Which is not the browser?

    Google


    Mozilla


    Internet Explorer


    Opera


  • Email stands for:

    Electric mail


    Easy mail


    Electronic mail


  • Which is not the application of internet:

    Shopping


    Banking


    Communication


    Sleeping


  • Which is the advantage of e-business:

    Reduction of cost


    All of these


    Better Service


    Reduction of paper work


  • You scored /19


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