A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition plus a noun or pronoun (the object of the preposition). The object of the preposition is just a fancy name for the noun or pronoun that that follows the preposition. It is a word which shows the relation of noun/ pronoun.
Types of Preposition
Preposition of time
Preposition of space
Preposition of direction
Preposition of time (at, on, in, till, until, to, for, from, since, by, during, before, after etc.)
At to indicate time by watch. Example: The class starts at 12:00 P.M.
Name of Festival. Example: I will go home at Dashain.
Before daybreak, sunrise, sunset. Example: He will arrive at sunset.
Before Parts of Day, morning, afternoon, evening, night, midnight, midday but there should not be article 'the'. Example: He gets up at morning. (He gets up in 'the' morning.)
Before movement or time but there must be this, that any boundary. Example: He can arrive at any time.
On / In
Before Name of Day and Date 'on'. Example: He was born on Monday.
Bigger than the day like the name of a month, season, century, decade etc. 'in'. Example: He will go in 1998.
'In' is used before period of time. Example: He will return back in two years.
To show state of age like infancy, childhood, in old age in youth. Example: Sushil Koirala died in old age.
Till / Until (सम्म) period of time Example: I'll teach till/ until 5 o' clock.
For (सम्म) period of time Example: We will read for 6 hours. (६ घण्टा सम्म)
To only that place (not others) Example: He goes to school. (सरासर स्कुलमा मात्र)
'for' any tense to show period of time Example: I have been sick for 3 days.
'since' point of time, and only in perfect tense. Example: He has been sick since last Sunday.
If any clause indicates time, 'since' is used. Example: He has been here since he got married.
Where there are till, until, to used to show as a pair 'from'. Example: He works from morning to evening.
By (सम्ममा) by 5 pm (५ बजे सम्ममा) at 5 pm (५ बजे ठिक) 5 pm sharp (पछि)
Preposition of space (at, on, in, into, inside, outside, over, under, above, below etc.)
At not separate inside or outside, to show a certain point or to show nearly Example: Where can be? \(\rightarrow\) at bus stop, shop, platform etc.
On any object either in hanging/ sticking condition Example: The picture is on the wall.
In inside depth or within certain boundary Example: The book is in the bag.
On generally 'on' indicates rest position Example: The duster is on the table.
Onto with force or motion if any object, place 'onto' anywhere.
Into from outside to inside in motion
Inside inside but at any point, side place Example: They are sitting inside the class.
Outside 'outside' is used for any point or place. Example: He is standing outside the class.
Over vertically above \(\uparrow\) Example: The plywood is over my head.
Under vertically down \(\downarrow\) Example: There is a mouse under the table.
Above above one layer to another
Below below one layer to another Example: He is sitting below the fan.
Over partially or fully covered
Preposition of direction (from.....to...., through, towards, along, across, by pass, into, onto, of, off, against)
from....to..... If anything from one place to another place straight, in that case 'from....to.....' is used. Example: There is tarred road from Chabahil to Jorpati. If any object or person in motion goes fro one point to another point. Example: He is coming from school to house.
through If any object or thing on the way for short time disappears and re-emerge, then through is used. Example: He went through a tunnel.
towards goes somewhere, at last reaches where he/ she wants may at last, reaches where he wants to go, or may not he go or he goes somewhere else and at last he reaches where he wants to go.
along goes/ moves in motion in a straight path or wants to go in straight path Example; He goes along the road. (does not change his side)
by any person/ thing goes near by anything in motion. Example: I went by the tree.
past any person/ thing goes near by anything in motion and then passed it. Example: I went by the tree and past it.
across not to go straight and not to disappear Example: He went across the road.
up to go to a certain height
down to come down from certain height
onto Example: He stepped onto the wall, went along it, jumped off the wall, then returns back.
round Example: he goes round the ground.
by; agent: Nischal The letter was written by Nischal.
with: instrument: pen Example: We write with a pen.
beside: side of any person/ thing Example: He sits beside me.
besides: except Example: Besides Nischal, other all were beaten.
in: used in clothes or ornaments Example: He is in new dress.
with: carrying something Example: A man with basket is coming.
of: to show temporary character/ age Example: She is a girl of 16.