While changing into indirect speech, inverted commas should be removed.
If reporting verb is in present or future tense, tense of reported verb isn't changed. Example: Ram says, "I go home." Ram says that he goes home.
If reporting verb is in the past tense, tense of reported speech is changed as follows:
Simple present = Simple past
Present Continuous = Past continuous
Present perfect = Past perfect
Present perfect continuous = Past perfect continuous
Simple past = Past perfect
Past continuous = Past perfect continuous
Example: Ram said, "I went home." Ram said that he had gone home. Note: If after said to is there, then only say is changed into tell or told or we can write said to i.e. same thing we casn write: 'Ram says to me' or 'Ram tells me'
Pronouns of reported speech are aslo changed according to noun or pronoun of reporting verb. Examples: - Ram said to me, "You speak English." Ram told me that I spoke English. - Ram said to you, "I lost my pen." Ram said to you that he had lost his pen. Note: Third person of reported speech is never changed. Ram said to you, "I lost my pen.' Ram said to you that he had lost his pen. If 'we' is used in reported speech, instead of human beings or mankind, at that time 'we' is not changed. Example: The teacher said,"We are mortal." The teacher said that we are mortal. If 'we', 'us' or 'our' are used instead of any newspaper, magazine then 'we' or 'our' changes into 'it'/ 'its'. Example: The Rising Nepal said, "We publish our newspaper daily." The Rising Nepal said that it published its newspaper daily.
If in reporting verb, both subject and object are used in third person and first person and the second person of reported speech is changed into third person but with whom it is related, we should write in brackets. Example: Ram said to Mohan, "You a stupid boy, is not my frined." Ram said to Mohan that he (Mohan) a stupid boy, was not his (Ram's) friend.
The following words are changed in reported speech:
on the morrow, next day
If the reporting verbis in the past, the following verb of reported speech are also changed: