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Notes, Exercises, Videos, Tests and Things to Remember on Other Rules

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  • Note
  • Things to remember

Exclamatory sentence begins with 'how', 'what', 'such' or 'so':


  • Reporting verb is changed into 'exclaimed'.
  • 'That' is used.
  • 'How', 'what', 'such', 'so' are changedto 'very' or 'great'.
  • 'Very is used before adjective and 'great' is used before noun.
  • Note of exclaimation changed into full-stop.


  • I must say,"How cruel is he!"
    I must exclaim that he is very cruel.

  • He said,"What a fine picture it is!"
    He exclaimed that it is a fine picture.

Sentence beginning with Vocative Case


  • Reporting verb is changed into 'call/ address' but after 'call', 'as' is not used.
  • Instead of 'that', 'as' is used.
  • According to nature of reported speech sentence is changed.


  • The captain said to the soldier,"Brave sons of the motherhood, fight braverly."
    The captain addressed the soldiers as brave sons of the motherland and inspired them to fight bravely.

  • The teacher said to wicked boys,"Idiots, stand up on the bench."
    The teacher addressed the wicked boys as idiots and ordered them to stand up on the bench.

Sentence begins with 'SIr' or 'Madam':


  • 'Sir' or 'Madam' is changed into 'respectfully'.
  • Which type of sentence it has in reported speech, same type of other rules are used.


  • The boy said to the teacher,"Sir, give me my book."
    The boy requested the teacher respectfully to give him his book.
  • The monitor said to headmaster,"Sir, may I come in?"
    The monitor asked headmaster respectfully if he might go in.

Sentence beginning with 'Please':


  • Sentence beginning with 'please' is an imperative sentence, some rules are applied as in imperative sentence.
  • Instead of 'please', 'kindly' is used and before 'kindly', 'to' is used.
  • Reported verb changes into 'request/ beg'.


  • We said to him,"Please do it at once."
    We requested him to kindky do it at once.

Sentence beginning with 'let':


  • Reported verb is changed into 'propose', 'beg', 'request'.
  • Let is changed into 'allow', 'ight' or 'should'.
  • It has three meanings: propose, order and condition.


  • He said to teacher,"Let me go away."
    He requested the teacher to allow him to go away.

Sentence beginning with 'Yes/ No':


  • If there is yes, we have to write 'agreed', 'replied in affirmative' or 'concord'. But if there is no, we have to write, 'replied in negative', 'protested', etc.
  • After Yes/ No, which type of sentence it has similar to that another type of sentence we have to add.


  • He said,"Yes. I can do."
    He replied that he could do it.
  • She said to her mother,"Will you come here?" The mother said,"No, I'm busy at work."
    She asked her mother if she would go there. The mother replied that she was busy at work.

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