The climate of the earth has changed from past few years. According to an ongoing temperature analysis conducted by scientists at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), the average global temperature on Earth has increased by about 0.8° Celsius (1.4° Fahrenheit) since 1880 . The major problem of the world is global warming . It is the proof of climate change. Climate change is the change in weather condition. Many countries have face changes in the climatic condition like changes in rainfall, resulting in more floods, droughts, or intense rain, as well as more frequent and severe heat waves. The ocean and glaciers have also faced the effects of climate change like oceans are warming and becoming more acidic, ice caps are melting, and sea levels are rising. Though Nepal is a small country, it is rich in natural resources. The topographical structure of Nepal is different in different parts. Nepal is divided into 3 regions, Mountain region, Hill region and the Terai region. The climate of mountain region is cold and terai region is hot. There is variation in a climate of Nepal in different parts. Nepal is also one the country that is facing huge effects of climate change. The climatic condition of Nepal is not as it was before 5 or 10 years. There are various causes of climate change. Some of them are discussed below,
Causes of Climate Change
Increase in temperature: Due to the global warming and greenhouse effect, the temperature of the earth is increasing day by day. Some parts of the earth are getting very cold and some parts are getting very hot. The temperature of the earth has increased by 1.5o F over the past century and is expected to rise by 0.5 to 8.6o F over next hundred year.
Release of the greenhouse effect: During the burning of fuel like coal, petroleum, etc, a large amount of carbon dioxide is produced which affects the environment resulting in the climate change. Similarly, various types of harmful gases that come out from the industries also affect the environment and atmosphere. Gases like nitrous oxide, methane etc also result in climate change.
Deforestation: As the population of the world is increasing day by day, people need more house, clothes, furniture etc for which trees are cut down. People of village depend on upon wood for fuel. So they cut down trees illegally. As we know that, trees take carbon dioxide, if there are no trees than the amount of carbon dioxide increases on earth. As a result, this affects the environment and bring climate change.
Increase in the use of chemical fertilizers: To fulfill the need and demand of increasing population, people use various types of fertilizer to for more production of foods and crops. This fertilizer affects the land as well as produces greenhouse gases. It affects the various sources of water with which it mixes with. It imbalance the aquatic ecosystem as well as it brings climate change by producing harmful gases.
Industrialization: There are many industries in the world. These industries produce various types of harmful gases like carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide, dirt and dust, and waste liquid with harmful chemicals. It causes acidic rain and increases greenhouse gases.
Volcanic eruption: When there is volcano eruption, various types of harmful gas and dirt comes out from the earth in a large amount. It forms huge fog and cloud with harmful gases. It blocks the sunlight coming into the earth's surface. As a result, the places near it becomes colder and colder due to lack of sunlight heat and changes the climate.
Effects of climate change
Change in air temperature: The temperature of the earth has increased by 1.5o F over the past century and is expected to rise by 0.5 to 8.6o F over next hundred year. This is due to the climate change.
Impact on biodiversity and ecosystem: Different plants and animals are unable to change themselves according to the changing climate. Their population are decreasing and are near to extinct.
Impact on human health: As the temperature of the earth is increasing day by day, the disease transfer very faster. People suffer from various diseases due to warm air, hot land etc. It decreases the energy of human and people suffer from various types of disease.
Impact on agriculture: Change in climate causes the greenhouse effect, untimely rainfall, drought, scarcity of water, drying out of various sources of water causing the agriculture. People of Nepal depend on rainwater for agriculture. Untimely rainfall causes flood, landslide etc in the hilly region.
Negative effect on water resources: Climate changes largely effects on water resources. Drying out of some sources of water is due to the climate change. Due to climate change, there is less snowfall but more melting of snow. These causes flooding due to over melting of snow. Sometimes, the river gets small and sometimes it gets big. It also causes glacier lake outburst due to increasing in temperature. It also affects the water cycle.
Energy crisis: Rivers and other sources of water are used for hydropower generation. When there are increase and decrease in the amount of water then the power generated also become sometimes less and more. Due to which, the country fails to fulfill the required amount of energy. This causes the energy crisis.
Impact on a human settlement: Climate change affects the human civilization near mountain, river, sea and lakes. Like when river sunkoshi was blocked, many houses of Sindhupalchowk were affected, and many people were replaced during flooding in Koshi river.
Impact on physical facilities: Climate change affects the developmental activities like construction of the road, bridge, dam, etc. as it causes sudden rainfall resulting in flooding and landslide.
Solution for Climate Change
As we know that every problem has a solution, there are also solutions for climate change. There are various ways to solve climate problem which are listed below,
Afforestation should be done.
Public awareness should be created about effects of climate change.
Burning of fuel should be stopped.
Alternative sources of energy should be used.
Pollution form industries and factories should be minimized.
Natural resources should be preserved.
Sustainable developmental activities should be done.
Chemical fertilizers should be not used.
Pollution should be controlled.
The temperature of the earth has increased by 1.5o F over the past century and is expected to rise by 0.5 to 8.6o F over next hundred year.
The major problem of the world is global warming .
The climatic condition of Nepal is not as it was before 5 or 10 years.
Due to the global warming and greenhouse effect, the temperature of the earth is increasing day by day.
During the burning of fuel like coal, petroleum, etc, a large amount of carbon dioxide is produced which affects the environment resulting in the climate change.
Chemical fertilizer affects the land as well as produces greenhouse gases.
Public awareness should be created about effects of climate change.