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Motivation, as it is clearly known to us, is the process of inspiring, encouraging and inducing the employees towards their jobs for the attainment of the objectives. There are several ways to classify the motivation. The motivation can be classified mainly into four groups and they are:
From among the above-mentioned classes of motivation, positive and negative motivation is taken for our discussion.
There are several Human Motivation Theories propounded by many learned authorities. Some of the motivation theories and the name of the propounders are given below:
From among the above-mentioned theories, the hierarchy of need theory, which is also called Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory is the most popular, well known and widely accepted theory. This theory is propounded by Abraham Maslow and is based on the need of people which appears in a distinct way. Maslow saw human needs in the form of a hierarchy, ascending from the lowest to highest. Lower ordered needs are experienced first which must be satisfied before higher-ordered needs are perceived.
Maslow’s theory is based on the following assumptions:
The basic human needs to be placed by Maslow in ascending order of importance can be illustrated as:
Fig: Maslow's Needs Hierarchy Theory
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs can be broadly classified into two groups:
Sharma, P., Shrestha, A., Pant, H., Gautam, I., Thapa, R. B., & Upadhyay, P. (2011). Buddha Publication.
Poudyal, Santosh Raj et.al., Business Studies-XII, Asmita Book Publication, Kathmandu
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Positive motivation is that process of attempting to influence the behavior of employees through the possibility of reward. Positive motivation is virtually a kind of technique to inspire the subordinates. In this motivation, the management provides financial and non-financial incentives for the satisfaction of all kinds of primary and secondary needs which positively inspires employees to show their best performance. It is concerned with the incentives such as an increase in salary, allowances, benefits, provision of promotion, rewards, and others; achievement such as praise, encouragement, acceptance by group and respect by the management. Positive motivation may be financial or non-financial or individual or group motivation.
Negative motivation is the method of motivating the employees by using different tools like fear, threats, power and punishment. Employees are motivated to work and complete the assignment as desired due to the fear that they have to consequence or avoid. The tools used in negative motivation are reprimands, disciplinary actions, demotion, loss of job, dismissal from the post, deduction of salary, group rejection. Any kind of deterioration may be included in negative motivation.
Physiological needs: Physiological needs are also known as basic and primary needs. These needs are common to all individuals. These needs involve food, cloth, shelter, sex and so on. These needs are related to survival and maintenance of human life. Physiological needs are mentioned at the lower level in the hierarchy of needs. These needs are addressed by providing appropriate wage with sound working environment.
Security/Safety needs: People the employees seek economical security or security of job when basic needs are fulfilled. These needs are mentioned in the second level in the hierarchy of Maslow's motivation theory. Security needs involve the security of job, security old age pension provision, protection against unexpected events, insurance and so on.