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When dead bodies of plants and animals are buried inside the earth's surface for several millions of years, due to high temperature and pressure of the earth, they decompose in theabsence of oxygen and form coal and petroleum. These products are called fossil fuel.
It is thenon-renewable source of energy. It is used as important sources of fuel in industries like iron, industries, steel industries, brick factory, cement factory etc. It is used to run trains and used in thethermal plant for production of electricity.
The coal which is available on earth are of different types on the basis of percentage of carbon present in them, coalsare classified into 4 types:
Among these, Anthracite is the best quality of coal, peat and lignite are low quality of coal.
Petrol, diesel, kerosene, lubricating oil, petroleum gas, etc. are commonly called petroleum or mineral oil. It is obtained as a crude oil from its mine, then it is purified to petrol, diesel, kerosene, etc, and remaining 'tar' which is used to make the tarred road. It is the most important fuel, which fulfills the demand of energy of the world. It is used by different vehicles, engine, factories, industries, etc as a chief source of fuel. It is also used to generate electricity.
During the purification of crude oil, petrol gas is liquefied to LPG gas is liquefied petrol gas) which we use in your kitchen for cooking purpose.
The energy formed by nuclear fusion and fission (nuclear reaction) is called nuclear energy.
When two light nuclei are combined together to form a heavy nucleus this process is known as nuclear fusion. During nuclear fusion, a large amount of energy is released.
When a heavy nucleus of uranium, plutonium is bombarded by neutrons then these nuclei break into two or more nuclei liberating a large amount of energy. This process is called nuclear fission. During nuclear fission reaction, some mass is lost to form energy. The energy thus formed is used to boil water into steam and steam engine is operated from it.
The ingredients of petroleum product are listed below. Each ingredient has its own specific use.
|Gas||As a fuel|
|Petroleum ether||As a solvent for cleansing purpose|
|Gas oil and diesel oil||For ignition, diesel vehicle fuel|
|Kerosene||As a fuel|
|Lubricating oil, grease, Vaseline||For lubricating|
|Paraffin wax||For making candles, matchsticks|
|Petroleum coke||As a fuel|
The sources of energy that take a long time, millions of years, to form and cannot be replenished easily and are found in limited quantity in the nature are called non-renewable sources of energy. They are exhausted if used continuously. For example natural gas, crude oil, coal etc.
The disadvantages of nuclear energy produced in nuclear power plants are:
|Nuclear Fission||Nuclear Fusion|
|The heavy nuclei are broken into lighter nuclei.||The lighter nuclei are fused together to form heavier nuclei.|
|Relatively easier to achieve conditions required for nuclear fission on earth.||Very hard to achieve conditions required for nuclear fusion on earth.|
|Amount of energy released is less than nuclear fusion.||Amount of energy released is larger than nuclear fission.|
|It is more polluting than nuclear fusion.||It is less polluting than nuclear fission.|
It is the energy derived using fossil fuels. Most of the energy is received by burning it. The main sources of fossil fuel are coal, natural gas and petroleum.
There are various reasons for the use of fossil fuel:
Coal is formed due to compression of dead plants or animals by the layers of rock over millions of years. Since it is derived from deceased living things coal is called fossil fuel.
What is nuclear fusion?