Notes on Blood | Grade 10 > Science > Blood Circulation in Human Body | KULLABS.COM

Blood

Notes, Exercises, Videos, Tests and Things to Remember on Blood

Please scroll down to get to the study materials.

Registration open for Special Scholarships

  • Note
  • Things to remember
  • Videos
  • Exercise
  • Quiz

It is a fluid connective tissue flowing in its closed path called blood vessels. It is red in colour due to thepresence of the iron-rich pigment called haemoglobin in RBC.

Blood can further be classified into two major groups:

  • Plasma: It is the nonliving portion of the blood, which consist 90% of water and 10% of minerals. It occupies 55% of total volume of blood and performs the following major functions:
  • It transports digested food to different organs and tissues of the body.
  • Waste substances from the tissues are removed and carried to the related excretory organs for their organs for their elimination.
  • It removes the major portion of carbon dioxide from the tissue.
  • The hormones secreted by various endocrine and exocrine glands are transported by circulatory system
  • It regulates the body temperature.
  • It contains fibrinogen (protein) and prothrombin hormone that helps in clotting of the blood after clots.

Blood cells

  1. Red blood 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They are also called erythrocytes. They are circular, biconcave, disc-shaped and non-nucleated cells. They are formed in red bone marrows and destroyed in the spleen. Their life span is very short that is 4 months. In one cubic millilitre of the blood of a healthy person 42-45 lakhs of RBC present. RBC contains an iron pigment called haemoglobin that carries oxygen from place to place in the form of oxyhemoglobin. When haemoglobin is exposed to oxygen, it turns red. So the blood is red in colour. If RBC is less in blood then, a person is suffering from anaemia, as there is not enough haemoglobin to transport oxygen.
  2. White blood cells: They are also called leukocytes. They are irregular in shape. They form in bone marrow and mature in lymph node or bone marrow. Their life span is about of 15 days. In one cubic millilitre of the blood of a healthy person, there are 6000- 10000 WBC present. WBC maintain immunity of our body. They fight against germs and keep us safe from disease. If WBC count is less in our body then we tend to get diseases, as our capacity for fighting with diseases is compromised.

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  3. Platelets: It is also called thrombocytes. They are rod-shaped without a nucleus. They are formed in bone marrow and destroyed in the spleen. Their life span is about 9 days. In one cubic millilitre of the blood of a healthy person, there are 2 to 4 lakhs platelets present. They are responsible for clotting of blood.

Functions of blood

  • Transportation: Blood transports oxygen from lungs to tissue and carries carbon dioxide from tissue to their excretory organs. It carries hormones to their target organs. It helps to transport minerals up to tissue and byproducts to their excretory organs.
  • Regulation: Body temperature is regulated by blood.
  • Protection: Blood maintains the immunity of the body, which fights against disease. Blood produces antibody in response to antigen and protects from germs.



  • Blood is a red fluid which contain plasma and blood cell.
  • Blood cells is divided into white blood cell, red blood cell and platelets.
  • Blood transfers oxygen, regulates temperature and maintains immunity power.
.

Questions and Answers

Click on the questions below to reveal the answers

Red blood Cell

White Blood Cell

1. It is biconcave and disc shaped.

2. It lacks nucleus in matured condition.

1. It does not have a fixed shape.

2. It has distinct nucleus.

Blood cell

Red Blood Cell

White Blood Cell

Platelets

No. of cells per ml of blood

4.5 million to 5 million

4000-10,000

200,000 to 400,000

Site of production

Bone marrow

Bone marrow

Bone marrow

Lifespan

120 days

About 15 days

About 9 days

Blood transports different types of substances inside the body. It takes oxygen, glucose, nutrients, and hormones to different parts of the body. The blood also transports metabolic wastes and unwanted substances like carbon dioxide, urea and uric acid for removal from the body.

Those blood cells that are biconcave in shape, lack nucleus but contain hemoglobin are erythrocytes. These are also called red blood cells. They are formed in the bone marrow and destroyed in the liver and spleen after 120 days.

Red blood cells have hemoglobin in them. Each hemoglobin contains one iron ion in the 'haem'. The presence of these iron containing haem groups makes red blood cells appears red.

Anaemia is a condition when a person's body has fewer amounts of red blood cells. If a person suffers from iron deficiency, less hemoglobin will be made and this will result in fewer red blood cells.

Three functions of white blood cells are as follows:

  1. Some white blood cells fight against disease causing pathogens.
  2. Some white blood cells kill microorganisms.
  3. Some white blood cells help in removing the destroyed pathogens.

Platelets help in blood clotting. Because of the presence of platelets the soluble plasma protein fibrinogen is converted to insoluble fibrin that traps red blood cells and prevents bleeding.

There are various functions of blood. However, all these functions can be categorized into three main groups. Those three main groups are as follows:

  1. Transportation
  2. Regulation
  3. Protection

In leukaemia, cancerous blood cells form and crowd out the healthy blood cells in the bone marrow.Leukaemia is a condition in which the number of white blood cells(actually unnecessary blood cells) in the blood increases and becomes high. It is also called 'Blood cancer'. Leukaemia results due to the mutation in the gene that controls cell division.

Blood is the red and thick liquid connective tissue present in the human body. Blood is an important liquid connective tissue that circulates in a closed system of blood vessels. It is mainly made up of plasma and blood cells.
Generally following are the four components found in blood: -

  • Plasma
  • Red blood cells
  • White blood cells
  • Platelets

Plasma is yellowish transparent liquid. It occupies about 55% of the blood composition. It contains 90% of water, 10% of plasma protein, fat, salt and carbohydrate. The plasma protein contains the albumin, globulin and fibrinogen. Albumin is the most abundant protein in plasma.
The proteins found in plasma have following functions: -

  • To control the flow and the amount of water
  • To help clotting of blood
  • To protect from harmful germs invaded to our body
  • To maintain the blood pH

The fibrinogen and thrombocytes or platelets clots in contact with the air. Therefore, the blood when comes out gets clotted.

Hemoglobin is the substances which contains protein. It is found in the cytoplasm of erythrocytes of the blood in vertebrates. The function of the hemoglobin is to transport oxygen from the lungs to the cells.

Fibrinogen is a plasma protein which helps in clotting of blood by forming insoluble fibrin (a substance that form blood clot).

The three main functions of blood are as follows: -
Transportation:

  • The blood carries oxygen from the lungs to cells and tissues and carbon dioxide from the cells and tissues to the lungs.
  • It transports the food absorbed through intestine to the cells and tissues. It carries useless substances from the cells and tissues to the excretory organs such as liver, skin, kidney, etc.
Regulation:
  • It maintains body temperature and keeps the body warm.
  • It controls the amount of liquid and chemical in the body tissues.
Protection:
  • It directs white blood cells towards the infected area.
  • Fibrinogen, fibrin and globulin help in clotting of blood in cuts and wounds. They also help quick healing of wounds.

Functions of RBC:

  • It transports oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and all part of the body.
  • The surface of red blood cells absorbs the amino acids and transports them to the cells from the alimentary canal.
Functions of WBC:
  • It protects the body from micro-organisms and provides immunity to the body.
  • They produce antibodies and antitoxins which neutralize bacterial products.
Functions of platelets:
  • They perform an important role of forming clot on the skin in the event of an injury and prevent excess flow of blood from the body.

If a body consists minimum white blood cells (WBC), a person looses immunity power and may suffer from different types of disease. On the other hand, the excess of white blood cell in blood causes leukemia. Leukemia is blood cancer.

Anemia is caused due to the deficiency of RBC or erythrocytes. Due to its deficiency, the blood cannot transport enough oxygen to different body parts and enough energy is not released. Hence, person suffering from anemia becomes tired even in a short walk.

Blood comprises of red blood cell, white blood cell and platelets in the vicinity of plasma. So, in blood except red blood cells, other does not bear a particular colour. Each red blood cell (RBC) consists of hemoglobin containing iron. Because of this iron, the blood possesses red colour.

The two differences between red blood cell and white blood cell are as follows: -

Red blood cells
White blood cells
  1. Red blood cells have biconcave shape and do not bear nucleus.
  2. It is small in size.
  3. They help in transportation of oxygen and food materials.
  1. White blood cells are of different shapes and sizes and consist of nucleus.
  2. It is large in size.
  3. They protect the body from micro-organisms.

  1. Leukocytes: It protects the body from micro-organisms and provides immunity to the body.
  2. Bone marrow: It produces red blood cells.
  3. Fibrinogen: It helps in blood clotting.

Donated blood is treated with sodium citrate. It is because in the donate blood; fibrinogen is removed to avoid the blood clotting. Sodium citrate works as anti-coagulant.

0%
  • We need blood for ______.

    Regulation


    Transportation


    All the answers are correct


    Protection


  • Which one is called leukocytes?

    White blood cells


    Plasma


    Blood cells


    Red blood cells


  • How many percentage of Plasma available in blood?

    50%
    15%
    55%
    70%
  • How many percentage of water consist in Plasma?

    70%
    60%
    90%
    80%
  • You scored /4


    Take test again

ASK ANY QUESTION ON Blood


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Forum Time Replies Report
Yanji

Write average number of RBC and WBC in 5 ml blood of human?


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how erytho-protien stimulate the bone marrow to make a RBC?


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Shiwam mishra

What symptoms are seen if leucocytes and erythrocyte,found in our blood, fall below normal level?


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roshan

How many RBC and wbc are present in 5 ml of blood


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