Notes, Exercises, Videos, Tests and Things to Remember on Multimedia, Areas of Cyber Law and IT policy in Nepal
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We know that a vehicle for communication is known as the medium. It can be speech or still picture. The vehicles of communication that use some combination of speech, text, still graphics, animation, moving pictures and sound are known as multimedia. From this definition, we can say that any TV show is the multimedia experience.
A multimedia has a characteristic feature of interactive. In interactive multimedia, users can choose their own path through the presentation. The interactive multimedia has helped to make World Wide Web popular. Most web pages include graphics along with the text and may of theme offer animations, videos, and sounds.
The multimedia hardware basically integrates with the sound, graphics and picture. Hence, we need to have a sound card, a speaker as output & a CD-ROM drive. These components are readily available these days which were very expensive as they were manufactured some years back.
The other equipment that you need is pen-based graphics tablet, stereo, microphones, a digital camera and a video adaptor. If you enjoy playing games, you will want a 3D video accelerator, which is an add-on video adapter that works with your video card. For 3D sound, you will need a sound card capable of reproducing these sounds.
Multimedia is used for any computer application in which text alone does not work. Multimedia has become a prerequisite for computer games of all kinds. Its use is growing in computer-based education (CBE) and computer based training (CBT).
In business, multimedia is finding its way into information kiosks (automated presentation systems used for public information or employee training) and even in corporate databases.
Many commercial applications programs allow a user to incorporate multimedia elements. The Adobe Acrobat Program allows a user to create platform-independent documents (PDF) that contain text, graphics, video and sound using the Quick Time video format. Since, a computer can work with art, graphics, sound, text, animation, etc., it contains the huge number of bytes to be stored in the files.
The size of a file can be in terms of many megabytes. For this reasons, many multimedia application software use compression / decompression algorithms called codes while creating multimedia files.
The multimedia applications can be categorized into the following groups:
The process of creating multimedia work involves several steps. Some of the important steps are listed below.
There are three common ways to organizing or planning the multimedia work. They are:
1. Sequential Page-based Multimedia
The work can be a sequence of pages of slides, appearing one after the other that contains various elements such as text, sound, still graphics and video. Such work is appropriate for any applications in which the order of presentation of material is set. Examples of such type are the sales presentation, lecture, etc.
2. Hypertext Page-based Multimedia
The work can be set of pages containing links that the user can follow his interest. The user can generally move from page to page that shows graphics, sound, video and animation.
3. Movie-based Multimedia
The work can be movie or series of movies that stop from time to time to enable the user to follow a link.
Virtual Reality (VR) refers to the creation of an immersive, three –dimensional world that appears where we can actually go inside and explore it. Virtual reality environments are lots of fun. You use navigation control that enables you to walk or fly in the simulated world.
But, virtual reality comes into its own when you don a head –mounted display (HDM), a helmet-like contraption equipped with stereo LCD displays. You can then physically explore what appears to be a complex virtual environment, even though you are really walking around in a big, empty room.
The most advanced immersive technology to data is the Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE), which projects stereo images on a wall to give the illusion of virtual environment.
The virtual reality can be created in the World Wide by means of the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML, pronounced as via-mal).
Computer games are fantastic. It is noticed that the computer games were started in the 1970s, when the earliest computer video games such as Pond appeared in the bars and gaming arcades.
The video games came to the living rooms with the advent of Atari, Nintendo and Sega console game players which are special –purpose computers. Games soon migrated to the personal computers and from there, to the internet.
By the help of this technology, country can introduce and discover many things. The IT policy was adopted by Nepal in 2002 AD. (2057 B.S) to define the visin, background, objectives and strategies of computer education in Nepal. The main vision of IT policy of Nepal 2002 A.D. is to Place Nepal on the global map of Information Technology .IT policy helps to make information technology accessible to the general public and increase employment through this means. Not only this, it helps to build knowledge based society too.
The policies to be pursued for the implementation of the above-mentioned strategies shall be as follows:
Privacy, in information technology, means to maintan the privacyof inforamtion or datas of a particular organization or individual. So, information or data privacy means the ability of an individual or organization to maintain the security of information or data from the access of third party or unauthorized access, theft, etc.Information privacy or data privacy is related to different data types like:
Anonymity means hiding one's identity from others or not revealing one's real identity to other people. So, anonymity, in information technology, meanstoenable internet users to maintain a level of privacy that prevents the collection of identifying information such as the IP address.
Cyber law is the law that is implemented to contol the different crimes that are occurred by the use of computers. So, the different areas that the cyber law can be applied are as follows:
Computer crimeis an illegal activities carried out by the use of computers by the individuals who has a good knowledge about the computer. Alternatively, computer crime is also known ascyber crime, e-crime, electronic crimeor hi-tech crime.Computer crime is an act performed by a knowledgeable computer user, sometimes referred to as a hackerthat illegally browses or steals a company's or individual's private information. So, cyber law can be implemented to control the computer crimes.
Intellectual Property are the works done by the own creativity of an individual or the creation of mind, such as inventions; literary and artistic works; designs and symbols, names and images used in commerce. It includes copyrights, patents, trademark and industrial design. So, cyber law helps to protect the Intellectual Property Rights from being copied, theft, etc.
There are different crimes that occur by the use of computers like hacking, cracking, theft of private datas, etc. So, cyber law helps to track the IP address of the computers that does crimes and cyber law also helps in seizing those computers.
Cyberstalking, simply put, is online stalking. It can be defined as the crime which is done by the repeated use of technology, particularly the Internet, to harass or frighten someone. Common characteristics include false accusations, monitoring, threats, identity theft, and data destruction or manipulation. This cyber law has helped to find the stalkers and punish them and also helps the victims to protect them from stalkers.
Data protection and privacy means the proper maintenance of secuity of information or data drom being theft or from the unauthorized access. So, cyber law also helps the people to maintain the proper security of data and punish those people who enters into other's system without the permission or authority of the organization.
Khanal, R.C. Khanal, R.C. Computer Concept for XII. Pashupatigriha Marga, Thapathali, Kathmandu, Nepal: Ekta Books Distributors Pvt. Ltd., 2010. 110-112.
Adhikari, Deepak Kumar.,et.al., Computer Science XII,Asia Publication Pvt.Ltd