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very common disease of Nepal ,India,Bangladesh,Burma,and reported from ,Sri Lanka Africa,china south America and Mediterranean areas.
this disease frequently occurred during famines, social political disturbances and war due to malnutrition. it is known whether it is due to greater exposer to infected vectors or defective immune system due to malnutrition or due to a combination of these factors.
patients suffering from Kala Zara shows visceral leishmaniasis ,chronic infection of the reticuloendothelial system, exposes irregular fever with chills loss of appetite anaemia ,leucopenia due spleno hepatomegaly and sometime pancytopenia .Edema in hair and skin patients is suscepitableto infections like diarrhoea dysentery bronchitis ,pneumonia and tuberculosis incidence of this disease is more in immune suppressed patients.
the cause of ka lazar is due to protozoan endo pathologic parasite called leishmania Donovan ,other species include L.tropica and L. brasilinesis this primary host of L.donovani is man and secondary host is phlebotomous argentipes sand fly in the host phelebotomus argentips sand fly .in the host-parasite live in liver ,spleen ,bone marrow ,lymph glands etc,each parastite has 2 to 5 um in length.cytoplasm encloses nucleus ,blepharaphlast and kinetoplast.flagellum may or may not reduce incubation period varies from 10 days to 10 month or even years generally 2 to 4 month.
1 destroys the habit habitats of sand flies.
2 regular clean up of pets animals as well as surrounding.
3 Check the use of contaminated foods or vegetables.
4 education about the impact of Kala- Azar is necessary.
Medicine like Aminosidine and ambisone are recent anti-kale - Zara drugs. An oral drugs miltefosines also use for visceral leishmaniasis.
Agrawal, sarita. principle of biology. 2nd edition . kathmandu: Asmita book Publication, 2068 ,2069
Mehta, Krishna Ram. Principle of biology. 2nd edition. kathmandu: Asmita, 2068,2069.
Jorden, S.L. principle of biology. 2nd edition . Kathmandu: Asmita book Publication, 2068.2069.