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The development made by human beings by establishing residence, housing, road, agriculture, art, education, dress, etc. to make their life happy, healthy and prosperous is known as civilization. Different
civilizations have been developed by the human beings and some civilizations are already developed and some are being developed. Some are still existing and some have ended up. For example, Ancient Greek, Babylonia, Persia etc have been ended up but the Chinese, Roman and Aryan civilization are still in existence.
Most of the civilization exist on the bank of the river. Such a similarity exists with all civilization because of the availability of the fertile soil, water for drinking, irrigation, grass for the animals, etc. Like other civilizations Indus Valley civilizations also developed on the bank of the river. The two important cities of this civilization are Harappa on the bank of the Ravi river and Mohenjo-Daro on the bank of the Indus river. They are in Pakistan at present. This civilization is supposed to have flourished between 2300 - 1750 BC. The excavations of these places started in 1920 AD.
On the basis of excavations, it was found that Mohenjo-DaroandHarappa were well-planned cities. Harappa was surrounded by 12 meters wide brick walls. Similarly, Mohenjo-Daro was surrounded by 11 meters wide brick walls. There were many houses made of baked bricks. Some houses were small and some were multi-storeyed. Every house had a well and a bathroom. A large pond has been discovered in Mohenjo-Daro where general people could bath. There was also crematorium as well as a great granary in Harappa.
There were no big places found while observation and historians guess that no king had ruled over there
and the administration was conducted by the people. The images of a bull and a man surrounded by animals were found in some places. Besides this, the images of some goddesses were found in different places. It indicates that there were a matriarchal society and the tradition of worshipping goddesses. The main sources of amusement were animal fighting and playing dice.
Economic Condition of Indus Valley:
The major occupation of the people was farming. They grew wheat, barley, and pea. Animals like goats,
pigs and bulls were reared. Wheat was the staple food. They also ate meat, eggs, fish and watermelon too. They used to cultivate cotton and they wore the clothes made from cotton. Both male and female wore ornaments. They used coppers, brass and silver pots.
The progress made by human beings by establishing residence, housing, road, agriculture, cattle-rearing, art, education, dress, fooding, language, trade, ornament, etc. to make their life happier and prosperous is known as civilization.
The history of civilization existed on the bank of the river. This is because of the availability of fertile soil, sufficient water for drinking, irrigation, grass for the animals, etc.
Mohenjo-Daro and the Harappa are the well-planned cities. This is because Harappa was surrounded by the brick wall of 12 metres and the Mohenjo-Daro was also surrounded by the brick wall of 11 metres.
The excavation of 1920 AD told about the two important cities of Indus civilization i.e. Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. The civilization is supposed to have flourished between 2300 - 1750 BC. Although no written document was found by the excavation, available remains give a clear picture of a well-developed civilization.
All civilizations developed on _____ of river.
The Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa are in _____ at present.
The indus valley civilization is supposed to have flourished between _____ BC.
The excavation of the Indus Valley started in _____ AD.
The main occupation of the people in the Indus Valley was _____.
Harappa was surrounded with the _____ metres of wide bricks.
Mohenjo-Daro was surrounded with the _____ metres of wide bricks.
_____ was the staple food.
Harappa is situated on the bank of _____ river.
Mohenjo-Daro is situated on the bank of _____ river.