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The word ‘carbon’ is derived from the Latin word ‘carbo’ meaning soot or charcoal. Carbon is found in free as well as in combined state. In the free state, it is found nature as diamond, graphite and coal. In the combined state, it is found in compounds like carbon dioxide of air, limestone, chalk etc.
Carbon is a non-metal. It belongs to group IV A and period 2nd of the periodic table. Its atomic number is 6 and atomic weight is 12. Carbon is the first member of group IV A elements. These six electrons are arranged in different energy levels of a carbon atom as shown below.
|No. of electron||2||4|
Carbon has 4 valence electrons. It indicates that carbon can attain a stable configuration like that of inert gases in the following ways:
Allotropyis the different structural or physical modification of the same element but they have same chemical properties. The different forms of the same element are called allotropes. There are two allotropes of carbon which are given below, Graphite, diamonds and coals are nearly pure form of carbon
Diamond is considered as thepurest form of carbon which is hardest, transparent and colourless crystalline substance which is naturally formed. It is insoluble in all ordinary solvents.
Uses of diamond
Graphite is crystalline allotrope of carbon which is slippery to touch opaque and dark grey solid. It is also called plumbago or black lead.
Uses of graphite
|It is the hardest substance in the earth.||It is soft and slippery.|
|It is transparent, colourless substance which sparkles.||It is opaque, dark grey and shiny substance.|
|It is a bad conductor of heat and electricity.||It is a good conductor of heat and electricity.|
|Its specific gravity is 3.5.||Its specific gravity is 2.2.|
The sources of carbon in nature are as follows:
The property of an element by virtue of which it can exist in more than one form is called allotropy.
Graphite is used as lubricant because it is soft and non-volatile.
Carbon forms covalent compounds because it is non-metal and non-metals form covalent compounds by sharing of electrons.
Diamond is the hardest substance known because each carbon atom in diamond is joined to four other carbon atoms giving rise to a three dimensional rigid and stable structure.
Why can't carbon attain octet state by gaining four electrons?
because carbon has only 4 electrons in its valence shell
because those electrons are strongly held by the nucleus
because it creates too much inter electronic repulsion
because carbon is non-metal
The graphite is a good conductor of heat and electricity because ______.
graphite has sheets of layers of carbons.
graphite has double bonded electrons which are delocalized.
unlike diamond, Graphite is a good conductor of heat and electricity.
each carbon atom in a graphite layer is bonded to other 5 carbon units.
What makes diamond so hard?