Some of the chemical properties of carbon are given below,
Combustion: When carbon burns in the excessive amount of oxygen, it yields carbon dioxide. But, insufficient oxygen gives carbon monoxide.
C + O2 → CO2
2C + O2 → 2CO2
Reducing nature: Carbon is used as reducing less reactive metal oxides like oxide and zinc oxide to their corresponding metals.
PbO+ C → Pb + CO
Reaction with steam: (Formation of water gas) When carbon is heated with steam at about 900 - 10000 C, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen is produced.
900 - 1000 °C
C + H2O → CO + H2
This mixture of carbon monoxide and water is called water gas.
Reaction with metal: When carbon reacts with metal, Carbide is formed.
2C + Ca → CaC2 (Calcium carbide)
Reaction with lime: When carbon reacts with lime they react together to give calcium carbide.
3C + CaO → CaC2 + CO
It was 1828 AD that the German Chemist Friedrich Wohler prepared an organic compound i.e. urea by heating ammonium cyanate and disapproved the concept of vital force theory.
NH4CNO → NH2 - CO - NH2 (urea)
The branch of chemistry concerned with the compounds of carbon is termed as organic chemistry. Organic compounds are the compounds whose molecules contain carbon. Some of the examples of organic compounds are methane, ethane, wax, kerosene, alcohol, sugar, urea, esters etc. The substances derived from minerals are called inorganic compounds. The branch of chemistry concerned with inorganic compounds other than carbon is called inorganic chemistry. Some of the examples of inorganic compounds are hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride, sulphuric acid, potassium hydroxide, etc. Some simple carbon compounds are considered as inorganic compounds. Such compounds are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbonates and bicarbonates of metals.
Difference between organic and inorganic compounds
|Organic compounds||Inorganic compounds|
|They are mostly insoluble in water.||They are mostly soluble in water.|
|They are soluble in organic solvents like wax and petrol.||They are insoluble in organic solvents like wax and petrol.|
|They burn easily.||They do not burn easily.|
|They are covalent compounds.||They are usually electrovalent compounds and sometimes covalent compounds.|
|Their composition is complex.||Their composition is simple.|
|They have low melting and boiling point.||They have high melting and boiling point.|
The chemical compounds which are obtained from living organisms and contain carbon as one of the elements are called organic compounds.
The branch of chemistry which deals with all other elements except carbon and their compound is defined as inorganic chemistry.
According to vital force theory, formation of organic compounds takes place only under the influence of some which is present in the living organism only.
The differences between organic and inorganic compounds are as follows:
They contain carbon atom in their molecule.
They do not contain carbon atom in their molecule.
They are formed by covalent bonding.
They are formed by electrovalent bonding.
They have low melting and boiling point.
They have high melting and boiling point.
They do not give ions in water.
They give opposite ions in water.
Carbon reacts with water vapor to give water gas (It is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas).
The branch of chemistry concerned with inorganic compounds other than carbon is called