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components of touridm

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Components of tourism

Attraction: Attraction in tourism and its types

Arguably most important component of tourism is attraction. This means that the destination need to have some draw that makes tourists want to visit. In some cases the draw is scenic, like mountains and lakes. In other cases the draw might be historical relevance. Attraction is the reason for visit to nay place. Attraction can be range from man-made heritage to the natural ones. According to Michael Peters (1969) the major types of tourist attraction are listed below:

  1. Cultural; sites with cultural, historical, political and archaeological importance. People often visit these sites for cultural tourism. They are more concerned about country’s or people’s culture and their lifestyle.

  2. Traditions; festivals, arts, and handicrafts, local music, lifestyle etc. Traditional tourism is the subset of tourism in which people often are concerned about the festivals, arts and crafts etc. Those types of tourist are also called traditional tourist.

  3. Scenic; places with spectacular natural views, wildlife and biodiversity. Everyone loves nature. So the best scenic views are one of the most wonderful tourist attractions. It also includes natural parks, wildlife reserve, conservation reserve etc.

  4. Entertainment; sports events, recreational parks, night life. There are various attraction which falls under entertainment. Sports events includes world cup, championship etc. It also includes water sports such as rafting, cannoning, etc and various gaming activities.

  5. Other attraction; other attraction of tourism includes excellent climate, unique attractions like taj mahal of India, great wall of China, Mount Everest of Nepal.

Tourism attraction also creates a great impact on the country’s economy. It can provide employment opportunity, provide foreign exchange earnings, helps in economic growth, contribute to local economies, contribute to government revenues. Without attraction tourism cannot be completed, so in other words attraction completes the meaning of tourism. Attraction is such component of tourism which is irresistible to take into account. It is such a drive which pushes a person to travel. If there was no attraction then the number of traveler would have been so much less.

(NCTTM, 2014)( wikipedia.org, 2004)

Accessibility: Accessibility in tourism and means of transport

One of the main components of tourism, accessibility, refers to the ability for tourists to get to the destination. This mostly includes transportation, which needs to be regularly scheduled, economical, safe and comfortable. Depending on the destination, this includes cars and buses, boats and ships, trains and airplanes. Transportation is the blood stream of tourism development. Development of tourism in any destination depends on the level of development of transportation. The reason being Europe as no.1 tourist generating and attracting region is the excellent system of transportation in the region. When we overview the tourism development in the world, it does along with the pace of development in the transportation system.

In the ancient times, walking and use of beast of burden were main way of transportation. With the invention of steam engines, railway and water transportation became more efficient and widely used. Introduction of railway system paved the way for long haul travel in Europe and developed countries. Motor cars enhanced the speed and volume of travelling which is still continuing. Airplanes facilitated for faster and haul travel into any part of the world. With each invention of transportation means, there is an extra milestone for the tourism development.

Basically, we can divide transportation means into five categories they are

  1. Air transportation: Air transport has largely shaped the development of tourism. It is the most effective mode of transport in terms of speed. People seek comfort while they are travelling so, air transport provide the most comfortable travelling. Air transport includes airplanes, helicopters, rockets etc. More recently air transportation has been accommodating growing quantities of high value freight and is playing a growing role in global logistics.

  2. Rail transportation: Advances in transportation have widely eased travel. With the introduction of high speed electric trains as compared to old locomotive steam engines transport is made faster more reliable and comfortable and this contributes positively to the tourism sector.

  3. Road transportation: Roadways is the most widely used and the most dominant in the world tourism notably due to its flexibility, price and independence with the availability of cars at even cheaper prices means an increase in availability of this mode of transport and hence the growth of tourist volume. Road transportation includes cars, buses, etc.

  4. Water transportation: waterways are also the dominant ways of transport. Many people prefer to travel in a ship or a cruise if they are on holidays or a vacation. Waterways are also useful to carry large number of people. Due to which the concept of mass tourism is came into the spotlight.

  5. Others: other means of transportation includes cable car, beast of burden (animals).

In the complex topography and adventure destination walking and beast of burden still stands as a popular mean of transportation. (NCTTM, 2014)

Accommodation: Accommodation in tourism and its types.

Another important component of tourism is accommodation. This means that tourists have a place to stay upon reaching the destination and a way to get food. Much like accessibility, accommodation also needs to be economical, safe, and comfortable. The type of accommodation also varies according to the location. For instance, a stay in the mountains may require a cabin or a place to pitch tents. Other accommodation include hotels and motels.

In the early history, there were only limited kinds of lodging; inns, boarding houses etc. with the development of transportation, variety and quality of lodging facility were increased. With the development of railways, roadways, waterways and airways, lots of places with lodging facilities were developed. In last half century, the range and type of accommodation has changed significantly. There is decrease in the traditional small private hotels/bread and breakfast and boarding houses. Share of big hotels in accommodation industry is increasing. Non-traditional type of accommodation such as holiday village is on trend.

A.J. Burkart and S. Medlik have classified the holiday accommodation into four categories;

  1. Service accommodation; this type of accommodation includes hotels, pension houses, guest house, etc.

  2. Self-catering accommodation; it includes camping, caravan, rented houses etc.

  3. Homes of friend and relatives; normally as non-paid guest.

  4. Other accommodation; like boats, youth hostel etc.

Any modern holiday destination provides a wide range of lodging facilities. Sometimes, special types of accommodation or luxury hotel become a main reason for visit in the particular destination; for example Bahamas, nevertheless, accommodation occupies a biggest share in the total tourist expenditure. For example, accommodation noted down 32% share in total expenditure among foreign tourist in UK in 1978 which is still not less in present day tourism (British Tourist Authority, 1978).

(NCTTM, 2014)

Works Cited

wikipedia.org. (2004, january 03). Retrieved august 04, 2016, from wikipedia: http://www.wikipedia.org

NCTTM, c. (2014). fundamental of travel and tourism. In s. marasini, course material of fundamental of travel and tourism (pp. 80-85). kathmandu: NCTTM college.



<!-- [if !supportLists]-->1.    <!--[endif]-->Attractions are basically two types that are man-made attraction and natural attraction.

<!-- [if !supportLists]-->2.    <!--[endif]-->Man-made attraction is generally artificial, which are created by man for example; parks, temples, cultural sites etc.

<!-- [if !supportLists]-->3.    <!--[endif]-->. Natural attraction is generally god gifted or created by nature for example; rivers, mountains, wildlife, flora and fauna etc.

<!-- [if !supportLists]-->4.    <!--[endif]-->Attraction in tourism is also known as locale.

<!-- [if !supportLists]-->5.    <!--[endif]-->There are four means of transportation in some cases there may be five.

<!-- [if !supportLists]-->6.    <!--[endif]-->The means of transportation are; airways, waterways, railways, roadways, ropeways and beast of burden.

<!-- [if !supportLists]-->7.    <!--[endif]-->Tourism in recent days is largely shaped by air transport.

<!-- [if !supportLists]-->8.    <!--[endif]-->With the help of rail transportation more number of people can travel at once which lead directly to the concept of mass tourism.

<!-- [if !supportLists]-->9.    <!--[endif]-->With the development of transportation, variety and quality of lodging facility was increased.

 

<!-- [if !supportLists]-->10.                       <!--[endif]-->Share of big hotels in accommodation industry is increasing.

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