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Human beings and other living organisms are dependent on different types of things that exist freely in nature. They are water, air, forest, soil, minerals, vegetation, wildlife, etc. These things are known as natural resources. Natural resources are the useful raw materials that are used by humans and other living organisms.
Natural resources consist both living and non- living things. Living things includes plants, animals, fossil fuel etc and non- living things include air, water, soil, sunlight, minerals etc. They are also called biotic and abiotic resource respectively. Natural resources are found in our environment. Some natural resources are very important that we cannot live without them while some are not so important. Important natural resources include air, water, plants, sunlight, foods etc. And some natural resources are just used to fulfill our needs and desires like minerals, forests, fossil fuel, etc. All the things that we use in our daily life activities are made of natural resources. We cannot make natural resources ourselves.
Natural resources are divided into three types depending upon their origin, renewability, and utility. They are discussed below,
All the living organisms are dependent on the natural resources provided by the earth. No one can live without using natural resources. Natural resources like air, water, sunlight, vegetation etc are very important. Some of the importance of natural resources are discussed below,
As the population of the world is increasing day by day, the natural resources are being used very rapidly and excessively to meet the demands of increasing population. The natural resources are being exploited day by day due to the human activities like construction of roads, buildings, deforestation, etc. Natural resources are important for all the living organisms. So, we should use natural resources very wisely and economically. Not only human beings but all the living organisms depend on upon natural resource for their food, shelter, and many more things. So, the natural resources should be properly conserved and protected to continue the life of millions of living organisms on the earth.
Chitwan National Park
Established Date: 1973 AD
Total Area: 932 km2
It is the oldest national park of Nepal. It is located in the sub- tropical inner terai of Chitwan, Makwanpur, and Parsa districts. It was listed in World Heritage Site in 1984 AD. There are more than 43 species of mammals including one-horned rhinos, tigers, crocodiles, gaur, wild elephants, pangolin, striped hyena, Gangetic dolphin, monitor lizard, etc. There are more than 450 species of birds and more than 45 species of reptiles and amphibians. Plants like Sal, Sissoo, Khair, Simal are found in this National Park. It provides special trips like bird watching tour and Chitwan jungle safari.
Sagarmatha National Park
Established Date: 1976 AD
Total Area: 1148 km2
This park is located in the Khumbu region, north-east of Kathmandu. The park includes Mount Everest and several other peaks including Lhotse, Cho Oyu, Pumori, and Nuptse. The mountains have deep gorges and glacial valleys. The wildlife includes the himalayan Tahr, goral,Musk deer, Jackal, Wolf, and Lynx. Rarely seen wild animals include snow leopard, Himalayan black bear, langur monkey, weasel and Himalayan mouse hare. Birds include Danphe, Blood pheasant, Redbilled chough, Snow cock, Snow pigeon, etc. Plants like Gobre salla, Thingresalla, Bhojpatra, Dhupi, Rhododendron, etc are found in this national park. It is the first national of Nepal to be on the list of World Heritage Site in 1979 AD.
Langtang National Park
Established Date: 1976 AD
Total Area: 1710 km2
Langtang is the nearest national park from Kathmandu. It occupies the parts of Rasuwa, Nuwakot and Sindhupalchowk districts of Bagmati zone. The vegetation includes subtropical forests, oak and pine forests, alpine forests and grasslands. This park has various species of rhododendron. The wildlife consists of red panda, musk deer, wild dog, Himalayan Tahr, Himalayan black bear, rhesus monkey, langur, etc. Various species of birds like Impeyan pheasant are found in this national park. There are about 45 villages with homes of various ethnic groups. Langtang is the first Himalayan National Park of Nepal.
Rara National Park
Established Date: 1976 AD
Total Area: 106 km2
It is the smallest national park of Nepal with the country's biggest lake , i.e. Rara lake (10.8 km2). It is located in the Mugu and Jumla districts of Karnali zone. Plants like Rhododendron, Fir, Spruce, Birch, etc are found in this national park. Animals includeRed panda, Musk deer, Himalayan black bear, Leopard, Jackal, Himalayan tahr, Martin, Wild dog, Langur, Wild boar, Otter, etc and birds like Coots, Great crested grebe, Black-necked grebre, Gulls, Migrant water fowls, Mallard, etc are found in this national park. The main aim of this national park is to conserve the unique beauty of Rara Lake and to protect the flora and fauna of the Humla – Jumla Karnali region.
Bardiya National Park
Established Date: 1988 AD
Total Area: 968 km2
It is located in Bardiya district of Bheri zone. Animals likeRhinoceros , Wild elephant , Tiger , Swamp deer , Black buck , Gharial crocodile , Marsh mugger crocodile , Gangetic dolphin etc are found in this region. Birds includeBengal florican , Sliver-eared mesia , Sarus crane , Lesser florican etc. More than 30 different mammals, over 250 species of birds and many snakes, lizards and fish are found in this national park. Reptiles like Gharial crocodile, Marsh mugger crocodile, etc are found in this national park. Mammals found in this park includes Langur monkey, Rhesus monkey, Common leopard, Jungle cat, Fishing cat, Large and small Indian civets, Palm civet, Hyena, Wild dog, Jackal, Sloth bear, etc. About 70% of the park is covered by sal forest and grasses.
Shey- Phoksundo National Park
Established Date: 1984 AD
Total Area: 3555 km2
Shey Phoksundo National Park is situated in the mountain region of Western Nepal, covering parts of Dolpa and Mugu Districts. It is the largest national park of Nepal. with the deepest lake of Nepal, i.e. Phoksundo lake. Many gompas and religious sites are found in this park like Shey- gompa that was established in the 11th century. Common animals found in this park includes goral, wild dog, Himalayan tahr, serow, leopard, wolf, jackal, Himalayan black bear, Himalayan weasel, Himalayan mouse hare, yellow-throated marten and langur and rhesus monkeys. Birds found in this park includesImpeyan pheasant (danphe), blood pheasant, cheer pheasant, red and yellow-billed choughs, raven jungle crow, show partridge and many others.
Khaptad National Park
Established Date: 1984 AD
Total Area: 225 km2
It is located in Far- Western Development Region of Nepal. It consists districts ofBhajhang, Bajura, Doti and Achham. Khaptad has its own religious importance it is the home of khaptad baba a popular Pilgrimage of this region.Plants like salla, Khasru, Nigalo, etc and grasslands add beauty to this national park. Animals like Barking deer, Wild boar, Ghoral, Himalayan black bear, Marten, Rhesus monkey, Langur monkey, etc are found in this park. It includes birds like Impeyan pheasant (danphe), Nepal's national bird (Lophophorus impejanus), Partridge, Kalij pheasant, Monal, flycatchers, thrushes, Himalayan griffin, cuckoos, etc.
Makalu Barun National Park
Established Date: 1992 AD
Total Area: 2330 km2
It covers an area of Sankhuwasabha and Solukhumbu districts. About 47 varieties of orchids, 19 species of bamboos, 15 oaks, 87 species of medicinal herbs, 30 verities of rhododendron, and about400 species of birds and verity of wild animals are found in this park. Wild animals like Snow leopard, Clouded leopard, Barking deer, Himalayan marmot and weasel, tahr, Wild boar, Langur monkey, serous etc are found in this national park. Similarly, birds like Wren-babbler, Ground warbler are found in this national park. It supports various types of medicinal herbs, orchids, Gobre sallo, Thingre sallo, Bhojpatra, Rhododendron, Champ, Phirphire etc.
Shivapuri- Nagarjun National Park
Established Date: 2002 AD
Total Area: 159 km2
This national park is located on the northern fringe of Kathmandu. It covers an area of Kathmandu, Nuwakot, and Sindhupalchowk. The wild animals preserved here includes Leopard, Jungle cat, Golden jackal, Himalayan black bear, Mongoose, Marten, Barking deer, Wild beer, Monkey, Langur, Pika, Squirrel, Shrew, etc. Different birds like Eagle owl, Slender- billed babbler, Flycatcher, Cuckoo, Golden-throated barbet, etc are found in this national park. This national park is an important watershed supplying drinking water to Kathmandu.
Banke National Park
Established Date: 2010 AD
Total Area: 550 km2
It is located in Banke district of Mid- western Development Region. It is the tenth national park of Nepal. There are about 124 plant species, 34 species of mammals, more than 300 species of birds, 24 species of reptiles, seven amphibian species and fifty eight species of fish found in the park and the ninety percent of natural forest is composed mainly of Sal, Karma, Khair and Sissoo. Various species of birds and animals like elephant, leopard, tiger, wild bear, deer, lanhur, etc are found in this region. Similarly, gharial crocodile and python is also found in this national park.
Natural resources are the materials and components that can be found within the environment. The three types of natural resources with one example of each is given below,
Any two importance of natural resources are given below,
Any three national parks of Nepal are given below,
A national park is an area set aside for the conservation and management of natural environment including wild animals, plants and landscapes together with their utilization.Chitwan National Park was established in 1973 AD and Khaptad National Park was established in 1984 AD.