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Wildlife Reserves are the separate reserved area established for the protection and proper management of endangered wildlife. Here, the endangered animals are protected by conserving their habitats. In wildlife reserves, hunting, cutting down of trees and grasses, grazing, etc are not allowed. The Government of Nepal has established three wildlife reserves in Nepal. They are given below,
Shukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve
Established Date: 1973 AD
Total Area: 305 km2
It is located in the Terai Region of the Far- Western Development Region. Wild animals found in this reserve includes wild elephant, tiger, hispid hare, blue bull, leopard, chital, hog deer and wild boar. Birds like Bengal floricans, Babbler, Eagle, Owl, Hornbill, Wood- peacker, Vulture, Sarus crane, Flycatcher, Painted stork, etc are found this area. Swamp deer is the main feature of this area. An estimated population of 2000 swamp deer is found in this reserve. Marsh mugger crocodile, Indian python, monitor lizard and snakes like cobra, krait and rat snake are also found in this reserve.
Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve
Established Date: 1976 AD
Total Area: 175 km2
It is located in eastern terai of Nepal. It was designated as Ramsar site in 1987. It is surrounded by Saptakoshi river from east and west. It covers the area of Sunsari, Saptari and Udayapur districts. Its main aim is to conserve and promote the wild water buffalo. This reserve is covered by sisso and khayar, grasslands, and marshy vegetation. Wild animals includesSpotted deer, Asian Elephant, Hog deer, Wild pig, Blue bull, Water buffalo, etc. Birds like Watercock, Indian nightjar, Dusky eagle owl, Black-headed cuckoo, Grassbird, Fish eagle, Swamp francolin, etc are found in this wildlife reserve.
Parsa Wildlife Reserve
Established Date: 1984 AD
Total Area: 499 km2
Parsa Wildlife Reserve is the largest wildlife reserve in the country that is located in inner terai lowlands of south- central Nepal. It covers the area of Makawanpur, Bara, and Chitwan districts. The reserve supports a good population of resident wild elephant, tiger, leopard, sloth bear, garu, blue bull and wild dog. Other common animals are sambar, chital, hog deer, barking deer etc. Birds like Giant hornbill,Peafowl, red jungle fowl, flycatchers, etc are found in this wildlife reserve. It contains sal forest, constituting about 90% of the vegetation and grasslands.
The reserved area that is established for licensed hunting is called hunting reserve. Dhorpatan Hunting reserve is the only area in Nepal where licensed hunting is allowed. It was established in 1987 AD. It lies inRukum, Myagdi and Baglung Districts in the Dhaulagiri Himal range in West Nepal. The total area of this reserve is about 1325 km2. Common plant species found in this reserve include fir, pine, birch, rhododendron, hemlock, oak,junip etc. It is one of the prime habitats for blue sheep. Other common animals found in this reserve includes leopard, goral, serow, Himalayan tahr, Himalayan black bears, barking deer, wild boar, rhesus macaque, langur etc.
The conservation area is the protected area which is managed on the basis of the plans for conservation of natural resources, wildlife and their habitat with sustainable development and use of natural resources. It is established with an aim to achieve sustained balance between conservation of nature and socio- economic development and to conserve religious, cultural and economic resources of the local people. The government of Nepal has established six conservation areas in different parts of the country. They are described below,
Annapurna Conservation Area
Established Date: 1992 AD
Total Area: 7629 km2
It is the largest conservation area of Nepal that is located in the Annapurna range of the Himalayas across Manag and Lamjung districts. This conservation area has become the most popular trekking destination in Nepal due to its natural and cultural feature. This conservation area is managed by the National Trust for Nature Conservation which is conducting various activities like Conservation of resources, Tourism management, Community development, Education and Extension for the conservation of this area. This area is very rich in flora and fauna. It contains 478 species of birds, 39 reptiles, 22 amphibians and 100 mammals. Various species of butterflies are also found in this area. Snow leopard, Blue ship, multi- coloured Impheyan, Koklas, Blood pheasant etc are found in this area.
Kanchenjunga Conservation Area
Established Date: 1997 AD
Total Area: 2035 km2
This conservation area is located in Taplejung district. It shares its northern border with Tibet- China and eastern border with Sikkim- India. The Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation and WWF Program together launched the Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project to implement biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Wild animals like snow leopard, Himalayan black bear, musk deer, and red panda are found in this conservation area. Other animals in the area include the blue sheep and many others. Birds likeImpheyan pheasant, red-billed blue magpie, shy drongo etc are found in this conservation area. It is rich in ethnic diversity and culture. VariousMonasteries, chhortens, temples, etc are found in this conservation area. Plants include Gobre salla, Thingre sallo, Dhupi sallo, Himali larch and about 25 species of Rhododendron.
Manaslu Conservation Area
Established Date: 1998 AD
Total Area: 1993 km2
This conservation area is located in the Mansiri Himal range in Gorkha district. This area offers a classic setting for trekkers. This area supports29 species of mammals, including the rare snow leopard, musk deer, and the Himalayan Tahr. 20 species of birds and 3 species of reptiles are found in this conservation area. It shares its northern border with Tibet- China and western border with Annapurna Conservation Area. Mt. Manaslu is located in this conservation area. A large species of plants are found in this conservation area.
Api- Nampa Conservation Area
Established Date : 2010 AD
Total Area: 1903 km2
It is located in Far Western Development Region of Nepal. It includes 21 VDCs of Darchula district. It shares its northern border with the Tibet- China. Mahakali river lies in this conservation area. Two peaks Api and Nampa lie in this conservation area. Various types of forests and grassland including high peak medicinal herbs are also found in this conservation area.It includes birds like Himalayan monal, Snow cock, Blood pheasant, etc. are found in this conservation area. Animals found in this conservation area includes Himalayan black bear, Snow leopard, Musk deer, Ghoral, Serow, Himalayan tahr, Wolf, Clouded leopard, etc.
Gaurishankar Conservation Area
Established Date: 2010 AD
Total Area: 2179 km2
It includes two VDCs of Ramechhap, 14 VDCs of Dolakha and 6 VDCs of Sindhupalchowk districts.Wild animals in this park include the Himalayan black bear, red panda, snow leopard, musk deer, rhesus macaw and blue sheep. The birds found here include impeyan pheasant, shy drongo and red-billed blue magpie.34 species of mammals, 14 snake species, 16 species of fish, 10 types of amphibians and 8 lizard and 235 species of birds have been recorded in this conservation area. It is the river from which rivers like Khimti, Bhotekoshi, Sunkoshi and Tamakoshi takes its origin.
Krishnasar Conservation Area
Established Date: 2009 AD
Total Area: 16.95 km2
It is located in Bardia District. Its main aim is to conserve the endangered Blackbuck (Antelope cervicapra cervicapra). The population of krishnasar has increased to 213.
The names of three wildlife reserves of Nepal are given below,
Names of any three conservation area are given below,