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Water is very important for all the living organisms. No one can live without water. The bodies of all plants and animals contain water. About three-fourths of the earth's surface is covered by water. Water is also found below the earth's surface. Water is found in the various places of the Earth. There are various sources of water available on the earth. These sources of water are called water resources.
Some of the common sources of water are rainwater, rivers, lakes, watersheds etc. Rainwater, surface water, and underground water are the three main sources of water on the earth. Rainwater collected on the earth in the form of surface water and underground water. Surface water is the water that is found in the earth's surface in the form of oceans, rivers, lakes, ponds, etc. It is naturally filled by rainwater and naturally lost through evaporation. Underground water is the water found under the earth's surface. In our country Nepal, there are various sources of water like lakes, rivers, wetlands, watersheds, fountains, streams, etc. As Nepal is a mountainous country, glaciers are also the major sources of water in Nepal. Hydroelectricity can be generated from the rivers of Hilly and Himalayan regions of Nepal.
Importance of Water Resources
Life is possible on earth due to water. All the living organisms use water for various purpose. Humans use water for various purpose especially for drinking purpose. Water is used in agricultural, industries, household work, transportation and to perform environmental activities. Some of the important use of water are discussed below,
Conservation of Water Resources
As the population of the world is increasing , the water resources are getting polluted day by day. The water resources are widely used to meet the needs of increasing population. The water is used very carelessly. The resources of water such as rivers, lakes, streams, ponds etc are getting polluted due to the human activities like washing , bathing, mixing of wastes animals and humans, etc. If the pollution of water resources continues like this, then we can face the water crisis in near future. So, we should not pollute the environment. Water resources should be conserved to save the habitat of aquatic animals. Water are used by all the living organisms. Humans use water for various purposes. Water resources play important role in maintaining environmental balance. So, every resource of water should be conserved.
A watershed is an area of land where surface water from rain and melting snow or ice coverages to a single point at a lower elevation where the water joins another water body such as a lake, river, wetland, reservoir, etc. When the rain falls or snow melts, the water is carried by a watershed from the land. The watershed consists of surface water lakes, streams, reservoirs, and wetlands and all the underlying ground water. A watershed is a basin-like landform defined by highpoints and ridgelines that descend into lower elevations and stream valleys.
For example, the catchment area around Phewa lake in Pokhara is the watershed for Phewa Lake. Shivapuri- Nagarjun Park is a watershed for Kathmandu valley which is the main source of water in Bagmati, Bishnumati rivers and other streams including underground water. The southern belt of Kathmandu valley is watershed of Kulekhani. Koshi, Gandaki, and Karnali are the big watersheds of Nepal.
Importance of Watershed
Watershed is one of the sources of water. It is the region where all water flowing into it goes to a common outlet or a reservoir. People use water from the watershed for various purposes such as for drinking purpose, irrigation, recreation, transportation and for industrial activities. It supports habitat for millions of plants and animals. It also provides drinking water for wildlife. Protected watersheds help purify water as it flows across or through land into reservoirs.
Conservation of Watershed
Watershed support habitat for plants and animals and they provide drinking water for people and wildlife. Human uses water of watershed for various purpose like drinking, washing, cleaning etc. As the population of the world is increasing, the demand for water is also increasing day by day for which watershed are being affected by human activities. Due to unplanned urbanization and industrialization, the watersheds are being adversely affected. So, conservation and promotion of watershed are very important. Programs like afforestation, grass plantation, etc should be conducted to conserve watersheds. If we conserve the watersheds, then it helps in conservation of natural resources and natural environment. Mass awareness should be created among the people about the importance of watersheds.
Wetlands are the lands covered by water or present either at or near the surface of the land. It is the area that is highly saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally. Wetlands may support both aquatic and terrestrial species but it mainly supports aquatic plants. It is composed of hydric soil and hydrophytes, i.e. aquatic plants. Wetlands are areas of marsh, fen, peat- land or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tides does not exceed six metres.
The water of wetlands may be freshwater, saltwater or brackish. It plays important role in water purification, flood control, etc. It supports habitat for a large number of plants and animals. The wetlands have water table less than six metres in depth.
Taking about wetlands in Nepal, according to IUCN, there are 163 wetlands in terai, 164 wetlands in hills and 78 wetlands in the Himalayan region. Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve is the first wetland designated as a Ramsar Site in December 1987 AD. Some of the other wetlands listed in Ramsar Sites are Bishajari lake of Chitwan, Jagadishpur lake of Kapilvastu and Ghodaghodi lake of Kailali districts.
Importance of Wetlands
Wetlands are very important for all the living organisms. Some of the importance of wetlands are discussed below,
Conservation of Wetland
Wetland is very important as more than three billion people obtain their basic water needs from the fresh wetland. Wetlands also provide food, fibre, fuel and medicinal plants. They provide the valuable ecosystem for birds, reptiles, fishes, etc. It helps to reduce floods, control population, regulate climate and conserve biodiversity. But increasing population, unplanned urbanization, and industrialization have largely affected the wetland. Some of the human activities like draining off water to cultivate crops, drying out wetlands for settlement and running factories, throwing waste materials, etc. So, we should conserve the wetlands. We should not pollute the wetlands. We should not throw harmful waste materials into wetlands. If we conserve the wetlands, it helps in conserving or promoting our biodiversity and society.
The sources of water available on the earth are called water resources. Rain water, surface water and underground water are the three main sources of water on the earth.
Any three importance of water are given below,
Any three importance of wetlands are given below,
Any four ways of conservation of wetlands and watersheds are given below,
A watershed is an area of land where surface water from rain and melting snow or ice coverages to a single point at a lower elevation where the water joins another water body such as a lake, river, wetland, reservoir, etc. and Wetlands are the lands covered by water or present either at or near the surface of the land. It is the area that is highly saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally.