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Elements of Environment

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Elements of Environment

Our environment consists of both living and non- living things. Living things include soil, air, water whereas non- living things include plants and animals. Our environment is made up of the physical and biological world. The physical world includes air, soil and water and climatic factors like temperature, pressure, rainfall, sunlight, wind, etc. This all things make our environment. Talking about the biological world, it includes living organisms like plants and animals including human beings and micro- organisms. Our environment is made up of two components. They are described below,

Abiotic Components

Abiotic components include non- living things of the environment. Water, air, soil, temperature, rainfall, sunlight etc are the abiotic components of the environment. The biotic components of the ecosystem which includes the plants, animals and microbes interact and are dependent on the abiotic factors. Some of the important abiotic components of our environment are discussed below,

  • Air
    Air is very important component of our environment. No living organisms can live without air. All the organisms requires oxygen for respiration. Carbon dioxide is used by green plants to make food by the process of photosynthesis. Nitrogen is very important for plants. Air is the mixture of various gases like oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, helium, neon etc. Our earth is enveloped by a thick layer of air called atmosphere. The composition of various gases in air are given below,

    Air Composition (%)
    Nitrogen 78%
    Oxygen 21%
    Carbon dioxide 0.03%
    Neon 0.0018%
    Helium 0.0005%

    As the population of the world is increasing, the air is getting polluted day by day due to the human activities. Various gases released from the industries like sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide etc. causes air pollution. Air pollution is also caused by mining activities, burning of fossil fuels, different types of chemical fertilizers etc. Deforestation and excessive burning of fossil fuel increases the amount of carbon dioxide in air. We should not pollute the air, it not only affect the humans but also affect all the living organisms living on this earth.
    Source: www.flickr.com Fig; Water
    Source: www.flickr.com
    Fig; Water
  • Water
    Water covers about 71.4% of part of the earth. About three by four part of the earth is covered by water. The molecular formula of water is H2O. Water is a molecule made up of two molecules of hydrogen and one molecules of oxygen. Rain water, surface water and underground water are the main three sources of water found in earth. Other common sources of water are stream, river, lake, sea etc.
    Water is essential for all the living organisms. Water provides habitat for millions of aquatic animals and plants. Water is used for various purposes such as for drinking, cleaning, washing, irrigation of crops, generating hydroelectricity, etc. It is found that only 3% of water is suitable for drinking. Plants need water to perform various functional activities.No living organisms can live without water.
  • Land
    Out of four parts of the earth, one part is occupied by the land. It is the solid surface of the earth that is made up of rocks and soil. All the plants and animals (except aquatic plants and animals) live on land. Plants get water and minerals from the land. Animals depend on land for their food as they eat plants. Human beings grow crops, fruits, vegetables etc on land. Land provides food and shelter for most of the living organisms. All the needs and necessity of humans are fulfilled by using various factors of land. But nowadays lands are getting polluted by various human activities like deforestation, using chemical fertilizers, etc. We should not pollute the land because most of the organisms are dependent on land for their life.
    Biotic Components

    Biotic components are the living things of the environment. Plants, animals, and microorganisms are the biotic components of the environment. Biotic components of an environment are classified into three groups. They are given below,

    Producers
    Producers are the autotrophic organisms that can prepare their own food by photosynthesis. Green plants are known as autotrophs as they can prepare their own foods. They prepare their foods using water, minerals and carbon dioxide. Producers provide food to other living organisms that cannot prepare their own food. Animals get their foods from autotrophs.

    Consumers

    Source: classroom.synonym.com Fig: Consumers
    Source: classroom.synonym.com
    Fig: Consumers


    Consumers are those animals which cannot prepare their own food. They are also known as heterotrophs. Consumers depend on producers directly or indirectly for their food. Consumers are divided into three types. They are the primary consumer, secondary consumer, and tertiary consumer. Primary consumers are those consumers that directly depend on green plants or producers for their foods. Some of the common examples of primary consumers are the cow, deer, sheep, rabbit, goat, etc. Secondary consumers are those consumers that depend on the primary consumer for their food. Cat, fox, fish, dog etc are some of the common examples of secondary consumers. Tertiary consumers are those animals that depend on upon the primary consumers for their food. Some of the common examples of tertiary consumers are a vulture, lion, tiger etc. Carnivores animals are those animals that feed only on the flesh of other animals. Animals like a tiger, lion etc are carnivores animals. Omnivores animals are those animals that feed on both plants and animals. Animals like dog, cat, crow, bear, etc are omnivores animals. Human beings are also omnivores animals. Herbivores animals are those animals that feed on green plants. Primary consumers are herbivores.

    Decomposers

    The micro-organisms which feed on dead and decaying bodies and transform the organic compounds back into inorganic compound are called decomposers. These inorganic compounds are used by the green plant for their growth. They are also known as saprophytes. Decomposers convert the remains of dead plants and animals into simple substances. Bacteria and Fungi are called decomposers.

Man and Environment

Man and environment are inter- related with each other. The environment determines the lifestyle of the humans and the humans modify the environment as per their need. Humans perform all their activities on the environment. They grow, survive and die on the environment. We get oxygen from the airto breathe. We get food and shelter from the land. We get water from different resources of water and use it for drinking, cleaning, washing, irrigation, and many more things. We get timber, fodder, firewood, medicines, clothes, papers etc from the forest. We use various natural resources to fulfill our needs and desires and to make our life easy and comfortable. But nowadays, the environment is getting polluted day by day due to the human activities. Harmful gases like sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide etc produced by various industries is increasing in the atmosphere. The trees are being cut down and the structures of land are being changed to fulfill the increasing demand for housing, foods and other many materials needed for humans. The sources of water are getting polluted due to the mixing of harmful chemicals, wastes of humans, etc. The natural resources are being exploited by the human activities. Humans perform all their activities on the environment.

Human Impact on the Environment

Source: www.worldwildlife.org Fig: Deforestation
Source: www.worldwildlife.org
Fig: Deforestation

As the population of the world is increasing day by day, the needs and desires are also increasing. To fulfill the increasing needs and desires, humans are using natural resources excessively. They are modifying environment as per their needs. The environment is slowly changing due to various human activities. Water resources are getting polluted due to the mixing of harmful chemicals produced in industries and mixing of wastes oh humans. Humans beings are using chemical fertilizers to fulfill the increasing demand for food which is responsible for soil pollution. The harmful gases released by various industries, burning of fossil fuels, mining activities etc are responsible for air pollution. Humans being are cutting down trees for settlement and agriculture. Slowly, green lands or forest are being replaced by the cities or towns. Humans activities are not only affecting the environment but also billions of other living organisms living on the environment. Human activities create imbalance in the environment which invites various natural calamities like flood, landslide etc.

Effects on Humans Due to Environmental Degradation

Environmental degradation is due to the human activities. The degradation of the environment has caused adverse effects on human beings, plants and other living organisms. Some of the effects of environmental degradation on humans are discussed below,

  • Pollution brings various types of diseases that affect human beings.
  • There is no fresh air to breathe and pure water to drink.
  • The number of wildlife decreases and some of them become extinct.
  • Human beings suffer from food crisis due to the loss of food production.
  • Human beings suffer from various natural calamities like flood, landslide, drought, acid rain etc.
  • Human beings face scarcity of water.
  • The ecosystem is getting imbalanced which is affecting humans adversely.

Conservation of Environment

Source: www.rotaractnepal.org Fig: Afforestation
Source: www.rotaractnepal.org
Fig: Afforestation

Human activities are responsible for the degradation of the environment. Unplanned urbanization and industrialization are the major cause of environmental pollution. This not only affects the environment but also affect other living organisms living on earth. The existence of human beings depends upon the environment. So, it is the prime responsibility of every human to conserve the environment. We should use natural resources very wisely and economically. We should not do those activities that pollute the environment. Sustainable developmental activities should be carried out. Harmful gases released from industries and vehicles should be reduced. We should not use chemical fertilizers in the land. We should encourage afforestation and discourage deforestation. We should plant trees everywhere. Mixing of harmful chemicals and wastes of animals and humans with sources of water should be stopped. Mass awareness should be created about the conservation of natural resources. Strick laws should be made and properly implemented for the conservation of the environment. Humans can play a great role in the conservation of the environment.



  • An environment is the surrounding in which we live.
  • Abiotic components of environment include non- living things like soil, air, water, etc.
  • Biotic components of environment include living things like plants and animals.
  • The three groups of biotic components are the producer, consumers, and decomposers.
  • The primary consumer is also known as herbivores.
  • The animals that feed on both plants and animals are called omnivores.
  • Decomposers are the saprophytes that feed on dead and decaying bodies.
  • We should reduce the use of insecticides, pesticides and chemical fertilizers to reduce environmental pollution.
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Very Short Questions

Human beings can play following roles to balance the nature,

  • Human beings can balance the environment by controlling over population.
  • Human beings can balance the environment by controlling deforestation and planting new plants in barren lands and naked hills.
  • Human beings can balance the nature by using chemical fertilizers and insecticides safely and wisely.
  • Human beings can balance thenature by proper management of garbage and sewage.

 

The three types of consumers are given below,

  • Primary consumers: deer, rabbit
  • Secondary consumers: fish, frog
  • Tertiary consumers: lion, tiger

  • Producers: Producers are the green plants which can prepare their own food by photosynthesis.
  • Consumers: Those organisms which depend on others for their food are called consumers.
  • Decomposers: Decomposers are those organisms that act on dead and decaying bodies.

Any three effects on human beings due to environmental degradation are given below,

  • Human beings suffer from various diseases.
  • Human beings do not get suitable climate and environment.
  • Human beings face scarcity of water.

  • Abiotic components: Abiotic components of an environment are the non- living components of the environmnt. Example: Soil and air
  • Biotic components: Biotic components of an environment are the living organisms present in our environment. Example: Animals and plants

0%
  • The physical or biological world where we live is called

    Forest
    Volcano
    Space
    Environment
  • How many types of components of environment are there?

    6
    3
    2
    4
  • Which one of the following is abiotic components of environment?

    Humans
    Animals
    Plants
    Air
  • Which one of the following is not the abiotic components of environment?

    Air
    Water
    Animals
    Land
  • Which one of the following is the biotic components of environment?

    Air
    Water
    Plants
    Land
  • Which one of the following is not the biotic components of environment?

    Air
    Fish
    Lion
    Plants
  • Which one of the following is the producer of the environment?

    Bacteria
    Plants
    Lion
    Goat
  • Which one of the following is the consumer of environment?

    Fungi
    Plants
    Cat
    Bacteria
  • The saprophytes that act on dead and decaying bodies are called

    Decomposers
    Consumers
    Omnivores
    Producers
  • Those animals which feeds on both plant and animals are called

    Producers
    Carnivores
    Herbivores
    Omnivores
  • Which one of the following is herbivorous animals?

    Tiger
    Bacteria
    Lion
    Deer
  • Which of the following are primary consumers?

    Carnivores
    Herbivores
    Omnivores
    Green plants
  • Which one of the following is decomposer?

    Frog
    Bacteria
    Humans
    Tiger
  • How many percentage of air is occupied by nitrogen?

    1%
    1%
    1%
    1%
  • How many percentage of air is occupied by oxygen?

    0%
    0%
    0%
    0%
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